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Ice cleat distribution programmes and ice cleat use among older adults: repeated cross-sectional evidence from 63 municipal interventions in Sweden
  1. Robin Holmberg1,2,
  2. Johanna Gustavsson1,2,
  3. Mikael Svensson3,
  4. Carl Bonander2,3
  1. 1Department of Political, Historical and Cultural Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden
  2. 2Centre for Societal Risk Research, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden
  3. 3School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden
  1. Correspondence to Dr Carl Bonander, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg 405 30, Sweden; carl.bonander{at}gu.se

Abstract

Introduction Ice cleats may help prevent ice-related falls in places with icy roads, but there is limited evidence about the association between ice cleat distribution and ice cleat use. Our study examined the association between Swedish municipal distribution programmes and ice cleat use among older adults (65+ years).

Methods We combined data on municipal ice cleat distribution programmes (n=63) with repeated cross-sectional self-reports of ice cleat use in Sweden from 2007, 2010, 2014 and 2018. Respondents (n=63 234) were classified as exposed if they lived in a municipality with a programme, belonged to an eligible age group and responded after distribution (n=2507). Dose-response was assessed using distributed ice cleat pairs per capita (mean: 0.38). Linear probability models were used to estimate probability differences in ice cleat use between exposed and unexposed respondents, adjusting for age, sex, country of birth, education, survey wave and municipality. Ineligible age groups living in programme municipalities, who should be unaffected by ice cleat distribution, were used for bias assessment.

Results Exposure to ice cleat distribution programmes was associated with 7.5 percentage points (95% CI 4.2 to 10.9) higher self-reported ice cleat use after confounding adjustment. The association was larger in municipalities that distributed one pair of ice cleats per capita (17.3 percentage points (95% CI 11.2 to 23.4)). No association was found among the ineligible age groups (−2.3 (95% CI −5.5 to 1.0)).

Conclusion Distributing ice cleats to older adults may help increase their use of ice cleats in settings with icy road conditions.

  • behavior change
  • uptake/adherence
  • fall
  • process/impact evaluation
  • cross sectional study
  • older people

Data availability statement

Data are available on reasonable request. Data may be obtained from a third party and are not publicly available. This study used data from two sources. Our programme survey data are non-sensitive and will be shared with anyone upon reasonable request. The national survey data are protected by a confidentiality agreement with the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency and therefore cannot be shared publicly. Researchers interested in obtaining these data can contact the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency.

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Data availability statement

Data are available on reasonable request. Data may be obtained from a third party and are not publicly available. This study used data from two sources. Our programme survey data are non-sensitive and will be shared with anyone upon reasonable request. The national survey data are protected by a confidentiality agreement with the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency and therefore cannot be shared publicly. Researchers interested in obtaining these data can contact the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency.

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Footnotes

  • Contributors RH, CB and JG conceptualised the study and carried out the data collection. RH performed data management and statistical analyses with assistance from CB. RH drafted the manuscript with critical revisions from CB, JG and MS. CB is the guarantor, and accepts full responsibility for the conduct of the study, had access to the data, and controlled the decision to publish. All authors contributed to the interpretation of the results.

  • Funding This work was supported by research grants from the Kamprad Family Foundation (Familjen Kamprads Stiftelse; grant number 20180067) and the Swedish Transport Administration (Skyltfonden; TRV 2021/111693).

  • Disclaimer The funding sources had no role in the design of the study, the analysis and interpretation of the data or the writing of, nor the decision to publish, the manuscript.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.