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Trampoline centre injuries in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis
  1. Carlos Nunez1,2,
  2. Guy D Eslick1,2,
  3. Elizabeth J Elliott1,2
  1. 1Faculty of Medicine and Health, Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  2. 2The Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit, The Sydney Children's Hospital Network (Westmead), Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Carlos Nunez, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2145, Australia; carlos.nunezmiranda{at}health.nsw.gov.au

Abstract

Context No evidence-based review has compared injury risks sustained on trampolines at home and in trampoline centres.

Objective To present pooled results for injury type, site and treatment from studies reporting injuries that occurred on trampolines at home and in trampoline centres.

Data sources MEDLINE, Scopus, Google Scholar and Embase databases were searched to 31 December 2021.

Study selection Inclusion criteria: (1) assessment of trampoline injuries (home and trampoline centres); (2) children and adolescents; (3) the point estimate was reported as an odds ratio (OR); and (4) an internal comparison was used.

Data extraction Data were reported according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A random-effects model was used to estimate effect.

Results There were 1 386 843 injuries (n=11 studies). There was an increased likelihood of musculoskeletal and/or orthopaedic injuries (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.66 to 3.61, p<0.001), lower extremity injury (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.99 to 3.97, p<0.001), sprains (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.97, p<0.001) and a need for surgery (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.60, p<0.001) at trampoline centres compared with home trampolines. Conversely, upper extremity injury (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.95, p=0.03), concussion (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.65, p<0.001) and lacerations (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.59, p<0.001) were less likely to occur at trampoline centres than at home.

Conclusions Children using trampoline centres are more likely to suffer severe trauma and require surgical intervention than children using home trampolines. Development and implementation of preventative strategies, public awareness, and mandatory safety standards are urgently required for trampoline centres.

  • Public Health
  • Legislation
  • Epidemiology
  • Metanalysis
  • Child

Data availability statement

All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Data availability statement

All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Footnotes

  • Correction notice This article has been corrected since it was first published online. The sentence 'Trampoline injuries explain 50% of admissions to emergency departments in children under 14 years of age in the UK.' has been replaced with 'In the United Kingdom (UK), there were 11500 presentations to emergency departments (EDs) due to trampoline-related injuries in 2002'. The reference to Ibrahim et al has been removed.

  • Contributors CN performed the literature review, extracted data, verified the underlying data, interpreted the data and drafted the manuscript. In addition, CN is the guarantor and accepts full responsibility for the finished work and/or the conduct of the study, had access to the data, and controlled the decision to publish. GDE designed the study, conducted the analysis, verified the underlying data, interpreted the data and drafted the manuscript. EE designed the study, interpreted the data, and drafted the manuscript. All authors revised the manuscript for intellectual content, agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work, had full access to all the data reported and approved the final manuscript as submitted.

  • Funding The Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) is funded by the Australian Government Department of Health. “No award/grant number”. EJE is supported by a Medical Research Futures Fund-National Health Medical Research Council of Australia Next Generation Fellowship (#1135959).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, conduct, reporting or dissemination plans of this research.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.