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Work-related injuries among farm workers engaged in agricultural operations in India: a cross-sectional study
  1. Abhijit Khadatkar1,
  2. K N Agarwal1,
  3. L P Gite2,
  4. L S Kot3
  1. 1Agricultural Mechanization Division, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
  2. 2Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
  3. 3Department of Community Medicine, ICSSR-IMPRESS Project, Government Medical College, Ratlam, Madhya Pradesh, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Abhijit Khadatkar, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India; abhijitnu2{at}gmail.com

Abstract

Purpose We aim to investigate nature, risk factors as well as magnitude of farm injuries and fatalities among agricultural workers in rural India.

Methods An Agricultural Injury Study (AIS) was conducted using selected 1703 villages in eight states of rural India based on statistical consideration using unstructured proforma for 3086 victims/respodents, who were mostly agricultural workers or farmers. Injury incidence rate (IIR) was estimated per 1000 machines/tools per year for farm machinery and hand tools injuries, and per 100 000 workers per year for other sources. Questions about the injuries involved in farming tasks were used.

Results About 36.2% fatalities were caused by farm machinery that involves tractors. The IIR per year of farm machinery, hand tools and injuries due to other sources were 3.2 per 1000 machines, 0.7 per 1000 tools and 77 per 100 000 workers, respectively. Correlation between number of injury-prone agricultural machines and number of farm machinery injury is r=0.80 (number of injuries increases with increase in number of machines). The χ²=72.53; p<0.01 of number of hand tools and number of farm hand tools-related injuries, that is, they are statistically significant.

Conclusion Exposures to agricultural machineries during farming operations can result in injuries confounding that may be fatal or non-fatal. Mapping down the cause and taking preventive measure to reduce the losses are of major concern. Also, customised safety programme as well as legislative awareness is needed to be raised for the higher injury incidence group.

  • Cross Sectional Study
  • Occupational injury
  • Surveys
  • Farm
  • Exposure

Data availability statement

Data are available on reasonable request.

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Data availability statement

Data are available on reasonable request.

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Footnotes

  • Contributors Conceptualized the study (LPG, KNA,AK), drafted the initial manuscript (AK), managed the data management steps (AK, LSK), performed data management and analysis (LSK), supervised the data management and analysis (AK, KNA), interpreted data analysis (AK, KNA, LSK), supervised the data analysis (KNA), revised the manuscript (AK, KNA, LPG, LSK), reviewed the manuscript (AK, KNA, LPG, LSK), and approved the manuscript as submitted (AK, KNA, LPG, LSK). Guarantors (KNA, AK). (Abhijit Khadatkar-AK; K.N. Agarwal-KNA; L.P. Gite-LPG; L.S. Kot-LSK).

  • Funding No funding was received for conducting this study.

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.

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