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Home-related and work-related injuries in Makwanpur district, Nepal: a household survey
  1. Puspa Raj Pant1,
  2. Toity Deave1,
  3. Amrit Banstola1,
  4. Sumiksha Bhatta2,
  5. Elisha Joshi2,
  6. Dhruba Adhikari3,
  7. Sunil Raja Manandhar3,4,
  8. Sunil Kumar Joshi5,
  9. Julie A Mytton1
  1. 1Faculty of Health and Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK
  2. 2Kathmandu Medical College Public Limited, Nepal Injury Research Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal
  3. 3Mother and Infant Research Activities (MIRA), Kathmandu, Nepal
  4. 4Department of Paediatrics, Kathmandu Medical College Public Limited, Kathmandu, Nepal
  5. 5Department of Community Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College Public Limited, Kathmandu, Nepal
  1. Correspondence to Dr Puspa Raj Pant, Centre for Academic Child Health, 1-5 Whiteladies Road, Bristol, BS8 1NU, UK; puspa.pant{at}


Objective To describe the epidemiology of home-related and work-related injuries, their mechanisms, inequalities and costs associated with these injuries.

Methods A household survey was undertaken in three palikas of Makwanpur district between April and June 2019. Data were collected electronically on non-fatal injuries that occurred in the previous 3 months and fatal injuries that occurred in the previous 5 years.

Findings 17 593 individuals were surveyed from 3327 households. Injury rates were 8.0 per 1000 population for home injuries and 6.4 per 1000 for work-related injuries; 61.0% of home injuries were among women and 69.9% of work-related injuries among men. Falls were the cause of 48% home injuries, affecting 50.9% of men and 46.5% of women. Burns/scalds were higher in women than men, affecting 17.4% of women reporting home injuries. Cuts and piercings accounted for 39.8% of all work-related injuries and 36.3% were falls. Injury incidence varied by ethnic group: home injuries were highest in Brahmin (12.0 per 1000) and work-related injuries highest in Rai groups (21.0 per 1000). The total mean costs (transport and treatment) of work-related injury was US$143.3 (SD 276.7), higher than for home injuries (US$130.4, SD 347.6). The number of home (n=74, 64.9%) and work-related (n=67, 77.9%) injuries were higher in families below the poverty line than families in the next income bracket (home: n=22, 19.3%; work: n=11, 12.8%).

Conclusions Home-related and work-related fall injuries are common. The inequalities in injury identified in our study by rurality, age, sex, income level and ethnic group can help target injury prevention interventions for vulnerable groups.

  • public health
  • cross sectional study
  • outcome of injury
  • community
  • costs
  • surveys

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  • Contributors PRP, TD, SKJ and JAM contributed to the conception and design of the study. PRP and TD drafted the protocol design, methods and data analysis plan. EJ, SB, DA, PRP and SRM supported the data collection. PRP and TD led the analysis, interpretation of data and drafted the article. PRP, TD and JAM drafted and finalised the manuscript. All the authors contributed to drafts and approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding This research was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) (Ref:16/137/49) using UK aid from the UK Government to support global health research.

  • Disclaimer The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NIHR or the UK Department of Health and Social Care.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval Ethical approval for conducting this survey was obtained from the Nepal Health Research Council (Reg. no. 798/2018) and the University of the West of England Bristol Faculty Research Ethics Committee (reference no. HAS. 19.02.133).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available upon reasonable request.

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