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Epidemiology of facial fractures: incidence, prevalence and years lived with disability estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study
  1. Ratilal Lalloo1,
  2. Lydia R Lucchesi2,
  3. Catherine Bisignano2,
  4. Chris D Castle2,
  5. Zachary V Dingels2,
  6. Jack T Fox2,
  7. Erin B Hamilton2,
  8. Zichen Liu2,
  9. Nicholas L S Roberts2,
  10. Dillon O Sylte2,
  11. Fares Alahdab3,
  12. Vahid Alipour4,5,
  13. Ubai Alsharif6,
  14. Jalal Arabloo7,
  15. Mojtaba Bagherzadeh8,
  16. Maciej Banach9,10,
  17. Ali Bijani11,
  18. Christopher Stephen Crowe12,
  19. Ahmad Daryani13,
  20. Huyen Phuc Do14,
  21. Linh Phuong Doan15,
  22. Florian Fischer16,
  23. Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel17,18,
  24. Juanita A Haagsma19,
  25. Arvin Haj-Mirzaian20,21,
  26. Arya Haj-Mirzaian20,22,
  27. Samer Hamidi23,
  28. Chi Linh Hoang14,
  29. Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani24,
  30. Amir Kasaeian25,26,
  31. Yousef Saleh Khader27,
  32. Rovshan Khalilov28,
  33. Abdullah T Khoja29,30,
  34. Aliasghar A Kiadaliri31,
  35. Marek Majdan32,
  36. Navid Manaf33,34,
  37. Ali Manafi35,
  38. Benjamin Ballard Massenburg12,
  39. Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani36,
  40. Shane Douglas Morrison37,
  41. Trang Huyen Nguyen14,
  42. Son Hoang Nguyen14,
  43. Cuong Tat Nguyen38,
  44. Tinuke O Olagunju39,
  45. Nikita Otstavnov40,41,
  46. Suzanne Polinder19,
  47. Navid Rabiee8,
  48. Mohammad Rabiee42,
  49. Kiana Ramezanzadeh43,
  50. Kavitha Ranganathan44,
  51. Aziz Rezapour7,
  52. Saeed Safari45,
  53. Abdallah M Samy46,
  54. Lidia Sanchez Riera47,48,
  55. Masood Ali Shaikh49,
  56. Bach Xuan Tran50,
  57. Parviz Vahedi51,
  58. Amir Vahedian-Azimi52,
  59. Zhi-Jiang Zhang53,
  60. David M Pigott2,54,
  61. Simon I Hay2,54,
  62. Ali H Mokdad2,54,
  63. Spencer L James2
  1. 1 School of Dentistry, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  2. 2 Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  3. 3 Evidence Based Practice Center, Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
  4. 4 Health Management and Economics Research Center, Tehran, Iran
  5. 5 Health Economics Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  6. 6 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Knappschaftskrankenhaus Bochum, Bochum, Germany
  7. 7 Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  8. 8 Chemistry Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
  9. 9 Department of Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
  10. 10 Polish Mothers’ Memorial Hospital Research Institute, Lodz, Poland
  11. 11 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
  12. 12 Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  13. 13 Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  14. 14 Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam
  15. 15 Center of Excellence in Health Service Management, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam
  16. 16 School of Public Health Medicine, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany
  17. 17 Nursing Department, College of Health Science, Aksum University, Aksum, Ethiopia
  18. 18 Nursing Department, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
  19. 19 Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
  20. 20 Department of Pharmacology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  21. 21 Obesity Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  22. 22 Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
  23. 23 School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
  24. 24 Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  25. 25 Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  26. 26 Hematologic Malignancies Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  27. 27 Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Ramtha, Jordan
  28. 28 Department of Physiology, Baku State University, Baku, Azerbaijan
  29. 29 Department of Public Health, Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  30. 30 Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
  31. 31 Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  32. 32 Department of Public Health, Trnava University, Trnava, Slovakia
  33. 33 Ophthalmology Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  34. 34 Ophthalmology Department, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  35. 35 Plastic Surgery Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  36. 36 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
  37. 37 Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  38. 38 Institute for Global Health Innovations, Duy Tan University, Hanoi, Vietnam
  39. 39 Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  40. 40 Laboratory of Public Health Indicators Analysis and Health Digitalization, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Russia
  41. 41 Academic Department, Unium Ltd, Moscow, Russia
  42. 42 Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
  43. 43 Department of Pharmacology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  44. 44 Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
  45. 45 Emergency Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  46. 46 Department of Entomology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
  47. 47 Rheumatology Department, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, UK
  48. 48 Institute of Bone and Joint Research, University of Sydney, Syndey, New South Wales, Australia
  49. 49 Independent Consultant, Karachi, Pakistan
  50. 50 Department of Health Economics, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam
  51. 51 Assistant Professor of Anatomical Sciences, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran
  52. 52 Trauma Research Center, Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  53. 53 Department of Preventive Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
  54. 54 Department of Health Metrics Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Spencer L James, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; spencj{at}uw.edu

Abstract

Background The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) has historically produced estimates of causes of injury such as falls but not the resulting types of injuries that occur. The objective of this study was to estimate the global incidence, prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs) due to facial fractures and to estimate the leading injurious causes of facial fracture.

Methods We obtained results from GBD 2017. First, the study estimated the incidence from each injury cause (eg, falls), and then the proportion of each cause that would result in facial fracture being the most disabling injury. Incidence, prevalence and YLDs of facial fractures are then calculated across causes.

Results Globally, in 2017, there were 7 538 663 (95% uncertainty interval 6 116 489 to 9 493 113) new cases, 1 819 732 (1 609 419 to 2 091 618) prevalent cases, and 117 402 (73 266 to 169 689) YLDs due to facial fractures. In terms of age-standardised incidence, prevalence and YLDs, the global rates were 98 (80 to 123) per 100 000, 23 (20 to 27) per 100 000, and 2 (1 to 2) per 100 000, respectively. Facial fractures were most concentrated in Central Europe. Falls were the predominant cause in most regions.

Conclusions Facial fractures are predominantly caused by falls and occur worldwide. Healthcare systems and public health agencies should investigate methods of all injury prevention. It is important for healthcare systems in every part of the world to ensure access to treatment resources.

  • dental injury
  • burden of disease
  • descriptive epidemiology
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This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made. See: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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Footnotes

  • Funding This study was funded by The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • Competing interests SLJ works on a grant for influenza and respiratory syncytial disease that is funded by Sanofi Pasteur. This work does not relate to facial fracture burden.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available in a public, open access repository. Data are available upon reasonable request. Data may be obtained from a third party and are not publicly available.

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