Background The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates.
Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm—the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate.
Results For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced.
Conclusions The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.
- descriptive epidemiology
- burden of disease
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Funding Funding for GBD 2017 was provided by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Competing interests Dr. Carl Abelardo T Antonio reports personal fees from Johnson & Johnson (Philippines), Inc., outside the submitted work. Dr. Jasvinder Singh reports personal fees from Crealta/Horizon, Medisys, Fidia, UBM LLC, Medscape, WebMD, Clinical Care options, Clearview healthcare partners, Putnam associates, Spherix, the National Institutes of Health and the American College of Rheumatology, stock options in Amarin pharmaceuticals and Viking pharmaceuticals, participating in the steering committee of OMERACT, an international organization that develops measures for clinical trials and receives arm’s length funding from 12 pharmaceutical companies, including Amgen, Janssen, Novartis, Roche, UCB Group, Ardea/Astra Zeneca, Bristol Myers Squibb, Celgene, EliLilly, Horizon Pharma, Pfizer, and Centrexion. Dr. Josep Maria Haro reports personal fees from Roche and Lundbeck, and that the institute for which they work provides services to Eli Lilly and Co., outside the submitted work. Dr. Mete Saylan is an employee of Bayer AG, outside the submitted work. Dr Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam is funded by National Heart Foundation of Australia and supported by a senior research fellowship from Deakin University, outside the submitted work. Dr. Spencer James reports grants from Sanofi Pasteur, outside the submitted work.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement Data are available in a public, open access repository (ghdx.healthdata.org). Select data are available on reasonable request. Select input data may be obtained from a third party and are not publicly available.
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