Article Text

Burden of injury along the development spectrum: associations between the Socio-demographic Index and disability-adjusted life year estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
  1. Juanita A Haagsma1,
  2. Spencer L James2,
  3. Chris D Castle2,
  4. Zachary V Dingels2,
  5. Jack T Fox2,
  6. Erin B Hamilton2,
  7. Zichen Liu2,
  8. Lydia R Lucchesi2,
  9. Nicholas L S Roberts2,
  10. Dillon O Sylte2,
  11. Oladimeji M Adebayo3,
  12. Alireza Ahmadi4,
  13. Muktar Beshir Ahmed5,
  14. Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour6,
  15. Fares Alahdab7,
  16. Suliman A Alghnam8,
  17. Syed Mohamed Aljunid9,10,
  18. Rajaa M Al-Raddadi11,
  19. Ubai Alsharif12,
  20. Khalid Altirkawi13,
  21. Mina Anjomshoa14,
  22. Carl Abelardo T Antonio15,16,
  23. Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah17,18,
  24. Olatunde Aremu19,
  25. Amit Arora20,21,
  26. Hamid Asayesh22,
  27. Reza Assadi23,
  28. Ashish Awasthi24,
  29. Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla25,26,
  30. Shivanthi Balalla27,
  31. Amrit Banstola28,
  32. Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo29,
  33. Till Winfried Bärnighausen30,31,
  34. Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi32,33,
  35. Neeraj Bedi34,
  36. Masoud Behzadifar35,
  37. Meysam Behzadifar36,
  38. Corina Benjet37,
  39. Derrick A Bennett38,
  40. Isabela M Bensenor39,
  41. Soumyadeep Bhaumik40,
  42. Zulfiqar A Bhutta41,42,
  43. Ali Bijani43,
  44. Guilherme Borges37,
  45. Rohan Borschmann44,45,
  46. Dipan Bose46,
  47. Soufiane Boufous47,
  48. Alexandra Brazinova48,
  49. Julio Cesar Campuzano Rincon49,50,
  50. Rosario Cárdenas51,
  51. Juan J Carrero52,
  52. Félix Carvalho53,
  53. Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela54,55,
  54. Ferrán Catalá-López56,57,
  55. Jee-Young J Choi58,
  56. Devasahayam J Christopher59,
  57. Christopher Stephen Crowe60,
  58. Koustuv Dalal61,62,
  59. Ahmad Daryani63,
  60. Dragos Virgil Davitoiu64,65,
  61. Louisa Degenhardt2,66,
  62. Diego De Leo67,
  63. Jan-Walter De Neve30,
  64. Kebede Deribe68,69,
  65. Getenet Ayalew Dessie70,
  66. Gabrielle Aline deVeber71,
  67. Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne2,72,
  68. Linh Phuong Doan73,
  69. Kate A Dolan74,
  70. Tim Robert Driscoll75,
  71. Manisha Dubey76,
  72. Ziad El-Khatib77,78,
  73. Christian Lycke Ellingsen79,
  74. Maysaa El Sayed Zaki80,
  75. Aman Yesuf Endries81,
  76. Sharareh Eskandarieh82,
  77. Andre Faro83,
  78. Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad84,85,
  79. Eduarda Fernandes86,
  80. Irina Filip87,88,
  81. Florian Fischer89,
  82. Richard Charles Franklin90,
  83. Takeshi Fukumoto91,92,
  84. Kebede Embaye Gezae93,
  85. Tiffany K Gill94,
  86. Alessandra C Goulart95,96,
  87. Ayman Grada97,
  88. Yuming Guo98,99,
  89. Rahul Gupta100,101,
  90. Hassan Haghparast Bidgoli102,
  91. Arvin Haj-Mirzaian103,104,
  92. Arya Haj-Mirzaian103,105,
  93. Randah R Hamadeh106,
  94. Samer Hamidi107,
  95. Josep Maria Haro108,109,
  96. Hadi Hassankhani110,111,
  97. Hamid Yimam Hassen112,113,
  98. Rasmus Havmoeller114,
  99. Delia Hendrie115,
  100. Andualem Henok112,
  101. Martha Híjar116,117,
  102. Michael K Hole118,
  103. Enayatollah Homaie Rad119,120,
  104. Naznin Hossain121,122,
  105. Sorin Hostiuc123,124,
  106. Guoqing Hu125,
  107. Ehimario U Igumbor126,127,
  108. Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi128,
  109. Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani129,
  110. Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam130,131,
  111. Rebecca Q Ivers132,
  112. Kathryn H Jacobsen133,
  113. Nader Jahanmehr134,135,
  114. Mihajlo Jakovljevic136,
  115. Achala Upendra Jayatilleke137,138,
  116. Ravi Prakash Jha139,
  117. Jost B Jonas140,141,
  118. Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari142,
  119. Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak143,
  120. Mikk Jürisson144,
  121. Ali Kabir145,
  122. Rizwan Kalani146,
  123. Amir Kasaeian147,148,
  124. Abraham Getachew Kelbore149,
  125. Andre Pascal Kengne150,151,
  126. Yousef Saleh Khader152,
  127. Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie153,
  128. Nauman Khalid154,
  129. Ejaz Ahmad Khan155,
  130. Abdullah T Khoja156,157,
  131. Aliasghar A Kiadaliri158,
  132. Young-Eun Kim159,
  133. Daniel Kim160,
  134. Adnan Kisa161,
  135. Ai Koyanagi162,163,
  136. Barthelemy Kuate Defo164,165,
  137. Burcu Kucuk Bicer166,167,
  138. Manasi Kumar168,169,
  139. Ratilal Lalloo170,
  140. Hilton Lam171,
  141. Faris Hasan Lami172,
  142. Van C Lansingh173,174,
  143. Janet L Leasher175,
  144. Shanshan Li98,
  145. Shai Linn176,
  146. Raimundas Lunevicius177,178,
  147. Flavia R Machado179,
  148. Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek180,
  149. Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek181,
  150. Narayan Bahadur Mahotra182,
  151. Marek Majdan183,
  152. Azeem Majeed184,
  153. Reza Malekzadeh185,186,
  154. Manzoor Ahmad Malik187,188,
  155. Deborah Carvalho Malta189,
  156. Ana-Laura Manda190,
  157. Mohammad Ali Mansournia191,
  158. Benjamin Ballard Massenburg60,
  159. Pallab K Maulik192,193,
  160. Hailemariam Abiy Alemu Meheretu70,194,
  161. Man Mohan Mehndiratta195,196,
  162. Addisu Melese197,
  163. Walter Mendoza198,
  164. Melkamu Merid Mengesha199,
  165. Tuomo J Meretoja200,201,
  166. Atte Meretoja202,203,
  167. Tomislav Mestrovic204,205,
  168. Tomasz Miazgowski206,
  169. Ted R Miller115,207,
  170. GK Mini208,209,
  171. Erkin M Mirrakhimov210,211,
  172. Babak Moazen30,212,
  173. Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji213,
  174. Roghayeh Mohammadibakhsh214,
  175. Shafiu Mohammed30,215,
  176. Mariam Molokhia216,
  177. Lorenzo Monasta217,
  178. Stefania Mondello218,219,
  179. Pablo A Montero-Zamora220,221,
  180. Yoshan Moodley222,
  181. Mahmood Moosazadeh223,
  182. Ghobad Moradi224,225,
  183. Maziar Moradi-Lakeh226,
  184. Lidia Morawska227,
  185. Ilais Moreno Velásquez228,
  186. Shane Douglas Morrison229,
  187. Marilita M Moschos230,231,
  188. Seyyed Meysam Mousavi232,233,
  189. Srinivas Murthy234,
  190. Kamarul Imran Musa235,
  191. Gurudatta Naik236,
  192. Farid Najafi237,
  193. Vinay Nangia238,
  194. Bruno Ramos Nascimento239,
  195. Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe240,
  196. Ionut Negoi64,241,
  197. Trang Huyen Nguyen242,
  198. Son Hoang Nguyen242,
  199. Long Hoang Nguyen242,
  200. Huong Lan Thi Nguyen243,
  201. Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum244,245,
  202. Yirga Legesse Nirayo246,
  203. Richard Ofori-Asenso247,248,
  204. Felix Akpojene Ogbo249,
  205. In-Hwan Oh250,
  206. Olanrewaju Oladimeji251,252,
  207. Andrew T Olagunju253,254,
  208. Tinuke O Olagunju255,
  209. Pedro R Olivares256,
  210. Heather M Orpana257,258,
  211. Stanislav S Otstavnov259,260,
  212. Mahesh P A261,
  213. Smita Pakhale262,
  214. Eun-Kee Park263,
  215. George C Patton264,265,
  216. Konrad Pesudovs266,
  217. Michael R Phillips267,268,
  218. Suzanne Polinder1,
  219. Swayam Prakash269,
  220. Amir Radfar270,271,
  221. Anwar Rafay272,
  222. Alireza Rafiei273,274,
  223. Siavash Rahimi275,
  224. Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar276,
  225. Muhammad Aziz Rahman277,278,
  226. Rajesh Kumar Rai279,280,
  227. Kiana Ramezanzadeh281,
  228. Salman Rawaf184,282,
  229. David Laith Rawaf283,284,
  230. Andre M N Renzaho249,285,
  231. Serge Resnikoff286,287,
  232. Shahab Rezaeian288,
  233. Leonardo Roever289,
  234. Luca Ronfani217,
  235. Gholamreza Roshandel185,290,
  236. Yogesh Damodar Sabde291,
  237. Basema Saddik292,
  238. Payman Salamati276,
  239. Yahya Salimi237,293,
  240. Inbal Salz294,
  241. Abdallah M Samy295,
  242. Juan Sanabria296,297,
  243. Lidia Sanchez Riera298,299,
  244. Milena M Santric Milicevic300,301,
  245. Maheswar Satpathy302,303,
  246. Monika Sawhney304,
  247. Susan M Sawyer44,264,
  248. Sonia Saxena305,
  249. Mete Saylan306,
  250. Ione J C Schneider307,
  251. David C Schwebel308,
  252. Soraya Seedat309,
  253. Sadaf G Sepanlou185,186,
  254. Masood Ali Shaikh310,
  255. Mehran Shams-Beyranvand311,312,
  256. Morteza Shamsizadeh313,
  257. Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini276,
  258. Aziz Sheikh314,315,
  259. Jiabin Shen316,
  260. Mika Shigematsu317,
  261. Rahman Shiri318,
  262. Ivy Shiue319,
  263. João Pedro Silva53,
  264. Jasvinder A Singh320,321,
  265. Dhirendra Narain Sinha322,323,
  266. Adauto Martins Soares Filho324,
  267. Joan B Soriano325,326,
  268. Sergey Soshnikov327,
  269. Ireneous N Soyiri328,329,
  270. Vladimir I Starodubov330,
  271. Dan J Stein323,331,
  272. Mark A Stokes332,
  273. Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan333,
  274. Jacob E Sunshine334,
  275. Bryan L Sykes335,
  276. Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos336,337,
  277. Karen M Tabb338,
  278. Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi226,339,
  279. Gizachew Assefa Tessema340,341,
  280. Jarnail Singh Thakur342,
  281. Khanh Bao Tran343,344,
  282. Bach Xuan Tran345,
  283. Lorainne Tudor Car346,
  284. Olalekan A Uthman347,
  285. Benjamin S Chudi Uzochukwu348,
  286. Pascual R Valdez349,350,
  287. Elena Varavikova351,
  288. Ana Maria Nogales Vasconcelos352,353,
  289. Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian354,355,
  290. Francesco S Violante356,357,
  291. Vasily Vlassov358,
  292. Yasir Waheed359,
  293. Yuan-Pang Wang360,
  294. Tissa Wijeratne361,362,
  295. Andrea Sylvia Winkler363,364,
  296. Priyanka Yadav365,
  297. Yuichiro Yano366,
  298. Muluken Azage Yenesew194,
  299. Paul Yip367,368,
  300. Engida Yisma369,
  301. Naohiro Yonemoto370,
  302. Mustafa Z Younis371,372,
  303. Chuanhua Yu373,374,
  304. Shamsa Zafar375,
  305. Zoubida Zaidi376,
  306. Sojib Bin Zaman377,378,
  307. Mohammad Zamani379,
  308. Yong Zhao380,
  309. Sanjay Zodpey381,
  310. Simon I Hay2,382,
  311. Alan D Lopez2,383,
  312. Ali H Mokdad2,382,
  313. Theo Vos2,382
  1. 1Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
  2. 2Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  3. 3Department of Medicine, University College Hospital Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  4. 4Department of Anesthesiology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  5. 5Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
  6. 6Higher National School of Veterinary Medicine, Algiers, Algeria
  7. 7Evidence Based Practice Center, Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
  8. 8Department of Population Health Research, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  9. 9Department of Health Policy and Management, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait
  10. 10International Centre for Casemix and Clinical Coding, National University of Malaysia, Bandar Tun Razak, Malaysia
  11. 11Department of Family and Community Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  12. 12Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Knappschaftskrankenhaus Bochum, Bochum, Germany
  13. 13King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  14. 14Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
  15. 15Department of Health Policy and Administration, University of the Philippines Manila, Manila, Philippines
  16. 16Department of Applied Social Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
  17. 17Department of Sociology and Social Work, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
  18. 18Center for International Health, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
  19. 19School of Health Sciences, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UK
  20. 20School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  21. 21Oral Health Services, Sydney Local Health District, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  22. 22Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
  23. 23Education Development Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
  24. 24Indian Institute of Public Health, Gandhinagar, India
  25. 25The Judith Lumley Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  26. 26General Office for Research and Technological Transfer, Peruvian National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru
  27. 27School of Public Health, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
  28. 28Department of Research, Public Health Perspective Nepal, Pokhara-Lekhnath Metropolitan City, Nepal
  29. 29School of Psychology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  30. 30Heidelberg Institute of Global Health (HIGH), Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany
  31. 31T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  32. 32Department of Psychiatry, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, California, USA
  33. 33Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA
  34. 34Department of Community Medicine, Gandhi Medical College Bhopal, Bhopal, India
  35. 35Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
  36. 36Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
  37. 37Department of Epidemiology and Psychosocial Research, Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz National Institute of Psychiatry, Mexico City, Mexico
  38. 38Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
  39. 39Department of Internal Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  40. 40The George Institute for Global Health, New Delhi, India
  41. 41Centre for Global Child Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  42. 42Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
  43. 43Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
  44. 44Centre for Adolescent Health, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  45. 45School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  46. 46Transport & Digital Development, World Bank, Washington, District of Columbia, USA
  47. 47Transport and Road Safety (TARS) Research Department, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  48. 48Institute of Epidemiology, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia
  49. 49National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico
  50. 50School of Medicine, University of the Valley of Cuernavaca, Cuernavaca, Mexico
  51. 51Department of Population and Health, Metropolitan Autonomous University, Mexico City, Mexico
  52. 52Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  53. 53UCIBIO, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
  54. 54Colombian National Health Observatory, National Institute of Health, Bogota, Colombia
  55. 55Epidemiology and Public Health Evaluation Group, National University of Colombia, Bogota, Colombia
  56. 56National School of Public Health, Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid, Spain
  57. 57Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  58. 58Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Science, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
  59. 59Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Christian Medical College and Hospital (CMC), Vellore, India
  60. 60Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  61. 61Institute of Public Health Kalyani, Kalyani, India
  62. 62School of Health Science, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden
  63. 63Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  64. 64Department of General Surgery, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
  65. 65Department of Surgery, Clinical Emergency Hospital Sf. Pantelimon, Bucharest, Romania
  66. 66National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  67. 67Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention, Griffith University, Mount Gravatt, Queensland, Australia
  68. 68Department of Global Health and Infection, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK
  69. 69School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  70. 70Department of Nursing, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia
  71. 71Centre for Global Child Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  72. 72Department of Community Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
  73. 73Center of Excellence in Health Service Management, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam
  74. 74University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  75. 75Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  76. 76United Nations World Food Programme, New Delhi, India
  77. 77Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  78. 78World Health Programme, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec, Canada
  79. 79Department of Pathology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway
  80. 80Department of Clinical Pathology, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
  81. 81Public Health Department, Saint Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  82. 82Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  83. 83Department of Psychology, Federal University of Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, Brazil
  84. 84Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  85. 85Division of Neurology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  86. 86REQUIMTE/LAQV, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
  87. 87Psychiatry Department, Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA
  88. 88School of Health Sciences, A.T. Still University, Mesa, Arizona, USA
  89. 89Department of Population Medicine and Health Services Research, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany
  90. 90College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Science, James Cook University, Douglas, Queensland, Australia
  91. 91Gene Expression & Regulation Program, The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
  92. 92Department of Dermatology, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan
  93. 93Department of Biostatistics, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
  94. 94Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  95. 95Center for Clinical and Epidemiological Research, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  96. 96Internal Medicine Department, University Hospital, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  97. 97School of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  98. 98School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  99. 99Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
  100. 100March of Dimes, Arlington, Virginia, USA
  101. 101School of Public Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA
  102. 102Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK
  103. 103Department of Pharmacology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  104. 104Obesity Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  105. 105Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
  106. 106Department of Family and Community Medicine, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain
  107. 107School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
  108. 108Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health Network (CiberSAM), Madrid, Spain
  109. 109Research and Development Unit, San Juan de Dios Sanitary Park, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain
  110. 110School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  111. 111Independent Consultant, Tabriz, Iran
  112. 112Department of Public Health, Mizan-Tepi University, Teppi, Ethiopia
  113. 113Unit of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium
  114. 114Clinical Sciences, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
  115. 115School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  116. 116Research Coordination, AC Environments Foundation, Cuernavaca, Mexico
  117. 117CISS, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico
  118. 118Department of Pediatrics, Dell Medical School, University of Texas Austin, Austin, Texas, USA
  119. 119Guilan Road Trauma Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
  120. 120Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
  121. 121Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  122. 122Department of Pharmacology, Bangladesh Industrial Gases Limited, Tangail, Bangladesh
  123. 123Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Legal Medicine and Bioethics, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
  124. 124Clinical Legal Medicine Department, National Institute of Legal Medicine Mina Minovici, Bucharest, Romania
  125. 125Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Central South University, Changsha, China
  126. 126School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa
  127. 127Department of Public Health, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa
  128. 128Department of Community Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  129. 129Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  130. 130Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia
  131. 131Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  132. 132Injury Division, The George Institute for Global Health, Newtown, New South Wales, Australia
  133. 133Department of Global and Community Health, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA
  134. 134School of Management and Medical Education, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  135. 135Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  136. 136Department for Health Care and Public Health, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia
  137. 137Institute of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka
  138. 138Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka
  139. 139Department of Community Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
  140. 140Department of Ophthalmology, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany
  141. 141Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing, China
  142. 142Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  143. 143Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Opole, Opole, Poland
  144. 144Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
  145. 145Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  146. 146Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  147. 147Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  148. 148Pars Advanced and Minimally Invasive Medical Manners Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  149. 149Department of Dermatology, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia
  150. 150Non-communicable Diseases Research Unit, Medical Research Council South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa
  151. 151Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
  152. 152Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Ramtha, Jordan
  153. 153Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
  154. 154School of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
  155. 155Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan
  156. 156Department of Public Health, Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  157. 157Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
  158. 158Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  159. 159Department of Preventive Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea
  160. 160Department of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  161. 161School of Health Sciences, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway
  162. 162CIBERSAM, San Juan de Dios Sanitary Park, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain
  163. 163Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain
  164. 164Department of Demography, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  165. 165Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  166. 166Department of Public Health, Yuksek Ihtisas University, Ankara, Turkey
  167. 167Department of Public Health, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
  168. 168Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
  169. 169Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, London, UK
  170. 170School of Dentistry, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  171. 171Institute of Health Policy and Development Studies, National Institutes of Health, Manila, Philippines
  172. 172Department of Community and Family Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
  173. 173HelpMeSee, New York City, New York, USA
  174. 174International Relations Department, Mexican Institute of Ophthalmology, Queretaro, Mexico
  175. 175College of Optometry, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA
  176. 176School of Public Health, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel
  177. 177Department of General Surgery, Aintree University Hospital National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK
  178. 178Department of Surgery, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
  179. 179Anesthesiology, Pain and Intensive Care Department, Federal University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  180. 180Radiology Department, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura, Egypt
  181. 181Ophthalmology Department, Aswan Faculty of Medicine, Aswan, Egypt
  182. 182Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  183. 183Department of Public Health, Trnava University, Trnava, Slovakia
  184. 184Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK
  185. 185Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  186. 186Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  187. 187Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Haridwar, India
  188. 188Department of Development Studies, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India
  189. 189Department of Maternal and Child Nursing and Public Health, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
  190. 190Surgery Department, Emergency University Hospital Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
  191. 191Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  192. 192Research Department, The George Institute for Global Health, New Delhi, India
  193. 193School of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  194. 194School of Public Health, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
  195. 195Neurology Department, Janakpuri Super Specialty Hospital Society, New Delhi, India
  196. 196Neurology Department, Govind Ballabh Institute of Medical Education and Research, New Delhi, India
  197. 197Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
  198. 198Peru Country Office, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Lima, Peru
  199. 199Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia
  200. 200Breast Surgery Unit, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
  201. 201University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  202. 202Neurocenter, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
  203. 203School of Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  204. 204Clinical Microbiology and Parasitology Unit, Zora Profozic Polyclinic, Zagreb, Croatia
  205. 205University Centre Varazdin, University North, Varazdin, Croatia
  206. 206Department of Propedeutics of Internal Diseases & Arterial Hypertension, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
  207. 207Pacific Institute for Research & Evaluation, Calverton, Maryland, USA
  208. 208Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, India
  209. 209Global Institute of Public Health (GIPH), Ananthapuri Hospitals and Research Centre, Trivandrum, India
  210. 210Faculty of Internal Medicine, Kyrgyz State Medical Academy, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
  211. 211Department of Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease, National Center of Cardiology and Internal Disease, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
  212. 212Institute of Addiction Research (ISFF), Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Frankfurt, Germany
  213. 213Department of Biostatistics, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
  214. 214Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
  215. 215Health Systems and Policy Research Unit, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
  216. 216Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College London, London, UK
  217. 217Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health Research Unit, Burlo Garofolo Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Trieste, Italy
  218. 218Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
  219. 219Department of Neurology, Oasi Research Institute, Troina, Italy
  220. 220Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA
  221. 221Center for Health Systems Research, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico
  222. 222Department of Public Health Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
  223. 223Health Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  224. 224Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
  225. 225Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
  226. 226Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  227. 227International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  228. 228Gorgas Memorial Institute for Health Studies, Panama City, Panama
  229. 229Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  230. 2301st Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
  231. 231Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece
  232. 232Health Management Reserach Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  233. 233Department of Health Management and Economics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  234. 234Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  235. 235School of Medical Sciences, Science University of Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia
  236. 236Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
  237. 237Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  238. 238Suraj Eye Institute, Nagpur, India
  239. 239Hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
  240. 240Cochrane South Africa, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa
  241. 241General Surgery Department, Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
  242. 242Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam
  243. 243Institute for Global Health Innovations, Duy Tan University, Hanoi, Vietnam
  244. 244Public Health Department, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Kota Semarang, Indonesia
  245. 245Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City, Taiwan
  246. 246Clinical Pharmacy Unit, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
  247. 247Centre of Cardiovascular Research and Education in Therapeutics, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  248. 248Independent Consultant, Accra, Ghana
  249. 249Translational Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia
  250. 250Department of Preventive Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, South Korea
  251. 251HAST, Human Sciences Research Council, Durban, South Africa
  252. 252School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Namibia, Osakhati, Namibia
  253. 253Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
  254. 254Department of Psychiatry, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
  255. 255Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  256. 256Institute of Physical Activity and Health, Autonomous University of Chile, Talca, Chile
  257. 257Applied Research Division, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  258. 258School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  259. 259Analytical Center, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Russia
  260. 260Committee for the Comprehensive Assessment of Medical Devices and Information Technology, Health Technology Assessment Association, Moscow, Russia
  261. 261Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeswara Academy of Health Education and Research, Mysore, India
  262. 262Department of Medicine, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  263. 263Department of Medical Humanities and Social Medicine, Kosin University, Busan, South Korea
  264. 264Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  265. 265Population Health Department, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  266. 266School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  267. 267Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
  268. 268Department of Psychiatry, Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York City, New York, USA
  269. 269Department of Nephrology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
  270. 270College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA
  271. 271College of Graduate Health Sciences, A.T. Still University, Mesa, Arizona, USA
  272. 272Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Contech School of Public Health, Lahore, Pakistan
  273. 273Department of Immunology, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  274. 274Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  275. 275Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  276. 276Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  277. 277School of Nursing and Healthcare Professions, Federation University, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
  278. 278National Centre for Farmer Health, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Victoria, Australia
  279. 279Society for Health and Demographic Surveillance, Suri, India
  280. 280Department of Economics, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
  281. 281Department of Pharmacology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  282. 282Academic Public Health Department, Public Health England, London, UK
  283. 283WHO Collaborating Centre for Public Health Education and Training, Imperial College London, London, UK
  284. 284University College London Hospitals, London, UK
  285. 285School of Social Sciences and Psychology, Western Sydney University, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia
  286. 286Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  287. 287Organization for the Prevention of Blindness, Paris, France
  288. 288Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  289. 289Department of Clinical Research, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Brazil
  290. 290Golestan Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
  291. 291National Institute for Research in Environmental Health, Indian Council of Medical Research, Bhopal, India
  292. 292College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
  293. 293Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  294. 294Health and Disability Intelligence Group, Ministry of Health, Wellington, New Zealand
  295. 295Department of Entomology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
  296. 296Department of Surgery, Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia, USA
  297. 297Department of Nutrition and Preventive Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  298. 298Rheumatology Department, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, UK
  299. 299Institute of Bone and Joint Research, University of Sydney, Syndey, New South Wales, Australia
  300. 300Institute of Social Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
  301. 301Centre-School of Public Health and Health Management, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
  302. 302UGC Centre of Advanced Study in Psychology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, India
  303. 303Udyam-Global Association for Sustainable Development, Bhubaneswar, India
  304. 304Department of Public Health Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
  305. 305School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK
  306. 306Market Access Department, Bayer, Istanbul, Turkey
  307. 307School of Health Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Ararangua, Brazil
  308. 308Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
  309. 309Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
  310. 310Independent Consultant, Karachi, Pakistan
  311. 311School of Medicine, Dezful University of Medical Sciences, Dezful, Iran
  312. 312School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
  313. 313Chronic Diseases (Home Care) Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
  314. 314Centre for Medical Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
  315. 315Division of General Internal Medicine and Primary Care, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  316. 316Center for Pediatric Trauma Research, Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA
  317. 317National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
  318. 318Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland
  319. 319Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany
  320. 320Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
  321. 321Medicine Service, US Department of Veteran Affairs, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
  322. 322Department of Epidemiology, School of Preventive Oncology, Patna, India
  323. 323Department of Epidemiology, Healis Sekhsaria Institute for Public Health, Mumbai, India
  324. 324Department of Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases and Health Promotion, Federal Ministry of Health, Brasilia, Brazil
  325. 325Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  326. 326Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Madrid, Spain
  327. 327Department of Research Development, Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics of the Ministry of Health (FRIHOI), Moscow, Russia
  328. 328Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Hull City, UK
  329. 329Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
  330. 330Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics of the Ministry of Health (FRIHOI), Moscow, Russia
  331. 331Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
  332. 332Department of Psychology, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia
  333. 333Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
  334. 334Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  335. 335Department of Criminology, Law and Society, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, USA
  336. 336Department of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
  337. 337Carlos III Health Institute, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health Network (CiberSAM), Madrid, Spain
  338. 338School of Social Work, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA
  339. 339Department of Community Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  340. 340Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
  341. 341School of Public Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  342. 342School of Public Health, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
  343. 343Molecular Medicine and Pathology Department, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  344. 344Clinical Hematology and Toxicology, Military Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam
  345. 345Department of Health Economics, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam
  346. 346Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore
  347. 347Division of Health Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  348. 348Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria
  349. 349Argentine Society of Medicine, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  350. 350Velez Sarsfield Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  351. 351Central Research Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics of the Ministry of Health (FRIHOI), Moscow, Russia
  352. 352Department of Statistics, University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil
  353. 353Directorate of Social Studies and Policies, Federal District Planning Company, Brasília, Brazil
  354. 354Raffles Neuroscience Centre, Raffles Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
  355. 355Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
  356. 356Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
  357. 357Occupational Health Unit, Sant’Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
  358. 358Department of Health Care Administration and Economics, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia
  359. 359Foundation University Medical College, Foundation University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  360. 360Department of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  361. 361Department of Psychology and Counselling, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  362. 362Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, St Albans, Victoria, Australia
  363. 363Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  364. 364Department of Neurology, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
  365. 365Centre for the Study of Regional Development, Jawahar Lal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
  366. 366Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  367. 367Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
  368. 368Department of Social Work and Social Administration, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
  369. 369School of Allied Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  370. 370Department of Psychopharmacology, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan
  371. 371Health Economics & Finance, Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi, USA
  372. 372School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
  373. 373Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
  374. 374Global Health Institute, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
  375. 375Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, A.C.S. Medical College and Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan
  376. 376Department of Epidemiology, University Hospital of Setif, Setif, Algeria
  377. 377Maternal and Child Health Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  378. 378Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  379. 379Student Research Committee, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
  380. 380School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
  381. 381Indian Institute of Public Health, Public Health Foundation of India, Gurugram, India
  382. 382Department of Health Metrics Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  383. 383University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Queensland, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Spencer L James, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98121, USA; spencj{at}uw.edu

Abstract

Background The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates.

Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm—the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate.

Results For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced.

Conclusions The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.

  • epidemiology
  • descriptive epidemiology
  • burden of disease
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made. See: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

View Full Text

Statistics from Altmetric.com

Supplementary materials

Footnotes

  • Funding Funding for GBD 2017 was provided by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • Competing interests Dr. Carl Abelardo T Antonio reports personal fees from Johnson & Johnson (Philippines), Inc., outside the submitted work. Dr. Jasvinder Singh reports personal fees from Crealta/Horizon, Medisys, Fidia, UBM LLC, Medscape, WebMD, Clinical Care options, Clearview healthcare partners, Putnam associates, Spherix, the National Institutes of Health and the American College of Rheumatology, stock options in Amarin pharmaceuticals and Viking pharmaceuticals, participating in the steering committee of OMERACT, an international organization that develops measures for clinical trials and receives arm’s length funding from 12 pharmaceutical companies, including Amgen, Janssen, Novartis, Roche, UCB Group, Ardea/Astra Zeneca, Bristol Myers Squibb, Celgene, EliLilly, Horizon Pharma, Pfizer, and Centrexion. Dr. Josep Maria Haro reports personal fees from Roche and Lundbeck, and that the institute for which they work provides services to Eli Lilly and Co., outside the submitted work. Dr. Mete Saylan is an employee of Bayer AG, outside the submitted work. Dr Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam is funded by National Heart Foundation of Australia and supported by a senior research fellowship from Deakin University, outside the submitted work. Dr. Spencer James reports grants from Sanofi Pasteur, outside the submitted work.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available in a public, open access repository (ghdx.healthdata.org). Select data are available on reasonable request. Select input data may be obtained from a third party and are not publicly available.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.