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Sociocultural factors that reduce risks of homicide in Dar es Salaam: a case control study
  1. Stephen Matthew Kibusi1,2,
  2. Mayumi Ohnishi3,
  3. Anne Outwater2,
  4. Kaoruko Seino4,
  5. Masashi Kizuki1,
  6. Takehito Takano1
  1. 1Health Promotion Section, Graduate School of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
  2. 2School of Nursing, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  3. 3Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan
  4. 4International Health Section, Graduate School of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Takehito Takano, Health Promotion Section, Graduate School of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan; whocc.hlth{at}


Objectives This study was performed to examine the potential contributions of sociocultural activities to reduce risks of death by homicide.

Methods This study was designed as a case control study. Relatives of 90 adult homicide victims in Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania, in 2005 were interviewed. As controls, 211 participants matched for sex and 5-year age group were randomly selected from the same region and interviewed regarding the same contents.

Results Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between victims and controls regarding educational status, occupation, family structure, frequent heavy drinking, hard drug use and religious attendance. Conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that the following factors were significantly related to not becoming victims of homicide: being in employment (unskilled labour: OR=0.04, skilled labour: OR=0.07, others: OR=0.04), higher educational status (OR=0.02), residence in Dar es Salaam after becoming an adult (compared with those who have resided in Dar es Salaam since birth: OR=3.95), living with another person (OR=0.07), not drinking alcohol frequently (OR=0.15) and frequent religious service attendance (OR=0.12).

Conclusions Frequent religious service attendance, living in the same place for a long time and living with another person were shown to be factors that contribute to preventing death by homicide, regardless of place of residence and neighbourhood environment. Existing non-structural community resources and social cohesive networks strengthen individual and community resilience against violence.

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