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Evaluation of the ThinkFirst Canada, Smart Hockey, brain and spinal cord injury prevention video
  1. D J Cook1,
  2. M D Cusimano1,
  3. C H Tator2,
  4. M L Chipman3
  1. 1Injury Prevention Research Office, St Michael’s Hospital, Division of Neurosurgery, Toronto and ThinkFirst Foundation of Canada, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario
  2. 2ThinkFirst Foundation of Canada, Toronto Western Hospital, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 2S8
  3. 3Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr Michael Cusimano
 St Michael’s Hospital, Injury Prevention Research Office, Division of Neurosurgery, 38 Shuter Street, Suite 2-018, Toronto, Ontario M5B 1A6, Canada;


Objective: The ThinkFirst Canada Smart Hockey program is an educational injury prevention video that teaches the mechanisms, consequences, and prevention of brain and spinal cord injury in ice hockey. This study evaluates knowledge transfer and behavioural outcomes in 11–12 year old hockey players who viewed the video.

Design: Randomized controlled design.

Setting: Greater Toronto Minor Hockey League, Toronto Ontario.

Subjects: Minor, competitive 11–12 year old male ice hockey players and hockey team coaches.

Interventions: The Smart Hockey video was shown to experimental teams at mid-season. An interview was conducted with coaches to understand reasons to accept or refuse the injury prevention video.

Main outcome measures: A test of concussion knowledge was administered before, immediately after, and three months after exposure to the video. The incidence of aggressive penalties was measured before and after viewing the video.

Results: The number of causes and mechanisms of concussion named by players increased from 1.13 to 2.47 and from 0.67 to 1.22 respectively. This effect was maintained at three months. There was no significant change in control teams. There was no significant change in total penalties after video exposure; however, specific body checking related penalties were significantly reduced in the experimental group.

Conclusion: This study showed some improvements in knowledge and behaviours after a single viewing of a video; however, these findings require confirmation with a larger sample to understand the sociobehavioural aspects of sport that determine the effectiveness and acceptance of injury prevention interventions.

  • brain injury
  • spinal cord injury
  • child health education
  • hockey
  • sport injury

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