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Urban residential fire and flame injuries: a population based study
  1. C DiGuiseppi,
  2. P Edwards,
  3. C Godward,
  4. I Roberts,
  5. A Wade
  1. Department of Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr Carolyn DiGuiseppi, Child Health Monitoring Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK (


Background—Fires are a leading cause of death, but non-fatal injuries from residential fires have not been well characterised.

Methods—To identify residential fire injuries that resulted in an emergency department visit, hospitalisation, or death, computerised databases from emergency departments, hospitals, ambulance and helicopter services, the fire department, and the health department, and paper records from the local coroner and fire stations were screened in a deprived urban area between June 1996 and May 1997.

Result—There were 131 fire related injuries, primarily smoke inhalation (76%), an incidence of 36 (95% confidence interval (CI) 30 to 42)/100 000 person years. Forty one patients (32%) were hospitalised (11 (95% CI 8 to 15)/100 000 person years) and three people (2%) died (0.8 (95% CI 0.2 to 2.4)/100 000 person years). Injury rates were highest in those 0–4 (68 (95% CI 39 to 112)/100 000 person years) and ≥85 years (90 (95% CI 29 to 213)/100 000 person years). Rates did not vary by sex. Leading causes of injury were unintentional house fires (63%), assault (8%), clothing and nightwear ignition (6%), and controlled fires (for example, gas burners) (4%). Cooking (31%) and smoker's materials (18%) were leading fire sources.

Conclusions—Because of the varied causes of fire and flame injuries, it is likely that diverse interventions, targeted to those at highest risk, that is, the elderly, young children, and the poor, may be required to address this important public health problem.

  • fires
  • burns
  • surveillance

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  • The asterisk (“truncation” mark) indicates any or no character after the initial term, for example, burn* would identify burn, burns, burning, burned, etc.”).

  • External cause of injury codes included X00–X09, X76, X97, and Y26, comprising exposure to smoke, fire and flames, whether unintentional, intentional, or of undetermined intent. Nature of injury codes included T20–32, T58, T59, and J68, comprising burns, toxic effects of carbon monoxide or gases, fumes and vapours, and respiratory conditions due to inhalation of chemicals, gases, fumes, and vapours.