Statement of Purpose Drivers who have committed a traffic violation are a particularly high-risk group, yet studies conducted among this group are scarce. We analyzed and synthesized the current literature concerning driving behaviors and crash risks following a traffic citation or violation.
Methods/Approach We searched PubMed, ERIC, and Academic Search Premiere for articles that were published in English between January 1, 1981 and June 25, 2021. A total of 18 articles, published between 1996 and 2020, met the selection criteria and were included in the final analysis. Two coders independently extracted and analyzed the selected articles and identified and compared common categories across the articles, including study design, study population, type of traffic citation and/or violation, and subsequent driving behaviors and crash risks.
Results Of the 18 selected articles, 9 (50%) reported on studies conducted in the US, 11 (61%) included both traffic offenders and comparison groups, 17 (94%) involved both male and female participants, and 16 (89%) comprised drivers of all ages. More than half the studies (n=10, 56%) were observational, with another 4 (22%) being intervention studies. Eight (44%) included participants with a speeding violation and 7 (39%) included participants with an alcohol-impaired driving violation. Twelve studies (67%) included recidivism as an outcome measure, while 11 (61%) included crashes and crash-related injuries or fatality. Most studies demonstrated that traffic offenders were more likely to commit a subsequent violation or had elevated crash risks or crash-related deaths.
Conclusion Traffic offenders are a high-risk group. Evidence from this review calls for more effective interventions implemented following a traffic violation to prevent re-offense, crashes, and crash-related injuries and deaths.
Significance Our results contribute to a better understanding of driving behaviors and outcomes among high-risk drivers of all ages including those with traffic violation(s).
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