Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Work-related injuries among farm workers engaged in agricultural operations in India: a cross-sectional study
  1. Abhijit Khadatkar1,
  2. K N Agarwal1,
  3. L P Gite2,
  4. L S Kot3
  1. 1 Agricultural Mechanization Division, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
  2. 2 Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
  3. 3 Department of Community Medicine, ICSSR-IMPRESS Project, Government Medical College, Ratlam, Madhya Pradesh, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Abhijit Khadatkar, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India; abhijitnu2{at}


Purpose We aim to investigate nature, risk factors as well as magnitude of farm injuries and fatalities among agricultural workers in rural India.

Methods An Agricultural Injury Study (AIS) was conducted using selected 1703 villages in eight states of rural India based on statistical consideration using unstructured proforma for 3086 victims/respodents, who were mostly agricultural workers or farmers. Injury incidence rate (IIR) was estimated per 1000 machines/tools per year for farm machinery and hand tools injuries, and per 100 000 workers per year for other sources. Questions about the injuries involved in farming tasks were used.

Results About 36.2% fatalities were caused by farm machinery that involves tractors. The IIR per year of farm machinery, hand tools and injuries due to other sources were 3.2 per 1000 machines, 0.7 per 1000 tools and 77 per 100 000 workers, respectively. Correlation between number of injury-prone agricultural machines and number of farm machinery injury is r=0.80 (number of injuries increases with increase in number of machines). The χ²=72.53; p<0.01 of number of hand tools and number of farm hand tools-related injuries, that is, they are statistically significant.

Conclusion Exposures to agricultural machineries during farming operations can result in injuries confounding that may be fatal or non-fatal. Mapping down the cause and taking preventive measure to reduce the losses are of major concern. Also, customised safety programme as well as legislative awareness is needed to be raised for the higher injury incidence group.

  • Cross Sectional Study
  • Occupational injury
  • Surveys
  • Farm
  • Exposure

Data availability statement

Data are available on reasonable request.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

Data availability statement

Data are available on reasonable request.

View Full Text


  • Contributors Conceptualized the study (LPG, KNA,AK), drafted the initial manuscript (AK), managed the data management steps (AK, LSK), performed data management and analysis (LSK), supervised the data management and analysis (AK, KNA), interpreted data analysis (AK, KNA, LSK), supervised the data analysis (KNA), revised the manuscript (AK, KNA, LPG, LSK), reviewed the manuscript (AK, KNA, LPG, LSK), and approved the manuscript as submitted (AK, KNA, LPG, LSK). Guarantors (KNA, AK). (Abhijit Khadatkar-AK; K.N. Agarwal-KNA; L.P. Gite-LPG; L.S. Kot-LSK).

  • Funding No funding was received for conducting this study.

  • Map disclaimer The depiction of boundaries on this map does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of BMJ (or any member of its group) concerning the legal status of any country, territory, jurisdiction or area or of its authorities. This map is provided without any warranty of any kind, either express or implied.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.