Background Most drowning deaths occur in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) (91%). However, a limited number of studies investigating unintentional drowning deaths were identified in LMICs, including in Indonesia.
Objective To investigate rates of unintentional drowning deaths in Indonesia, and to investigate the availability of downing prevention strategies in Indonesia between 2010 and 2019.
Methods A systematic search, guided by PRISMA, was conducted to identify all relevant grey literatures, including government/other authoritative reports, policy statements and issues papers, published between 2010 and 2019.
Results The unavailability of the national injury surveillance system, including for drowning deaths documentation, was identified in Indonesia. Data on drowning deaths in Indonesia were potentially underrepresented, due to inefficient data collection and insufficient continuity of data. The WHO 2014 Global Report on Drowning did not report drowning fatalities from Indonesia. According to The Global Burden of Disease Study, a downward trend of drowning deaths was observed in Indonesia between 2010 and 2017, from 0.52% of total deaths in 2010 to 0.35% of total deaths in 2017, with average annual percent change of -5.33%. The lack of publications on drowning prevention in Indonesia was identified, therefore strengthening of multi sectoral coordination is needed to ensure the sustainability of drowning prevention in Indonesia.
Conclusion Inefficient data collection in Indonesia hinders the planning, implementation, and evaluation of prevention strategies. Further research investigating the gap in drowning deaths data recording, analysis, reporting and dissemination is vital for the development of the national and regional injury surveillance system in Indonesia
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