Background Traumatic injuries are one of the major causes of disability and death worldwide and have an immense impact on the health of the population. In New Zealand, an estimated 8% of total health loss from all causes was attributed to injuries in 2016. The aim of this research is to describe the incidence and characteristics of major trauma in New Zealand up to May 2019.
Methods A literature review was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Scopus. Studies published in English reporting the incidence of major trauma in New Zealand were included. Major trauma was defined as death or an Injury Severity Score greater than 12. The quality of studies was assessed using the GATE LITETM tool.
Results Thirty-one studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were descriptive observational studies (n=29). The population incidence rate of fatal major trauma was highest among those injured from motor vehicle crashes or falls, among M&x0101;ori males and those sustaining head injuries. The incidence rate of non-fatal major trauma was highest among young M&x0101;ori males. Length of hospital stay was greatest in patients with the highest Injury Severity Scores.
Conclusions The incidence of major trauma varies by age, sex and ethnicity. The review findings highlight the need for further analytical studies that can explore factors that may impact on survival from major trauma.
Learning Outcomes Capacity to integrate knowledge and to describe the different aspects of major trauma.
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