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Assessment of home hazards for non-fatal childhood injuries in rural Nepal: a community survey
  1. Santosh Bhatta,
  2. Julie A Mytton,
  3. Toity Deave
  1. Centre for Academic Child Health, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Santosh Bhatta, Centre for Academic Child Health, University of the West of England, Bristol, BS8 1NU, UK; santosh.bhatta{at}


Background Unintentional injuries in and around the home are important causes of preventable death and disability among young children globally. In Nepal, there is a lack of data regarding home injuries and home hazards to guide the development of effective interventions for preventing childhood home injuries. This study aimed to determine the burden of unintentional home injuries in children <5 years in rural Nepal and quantify the injury hazards in their homes.

Methods A survey was conducted in 740 households in rural areas of the Makwanpur district during February and March 2015. The primary carer reported home injuries which occurred in the previous 3 months and data collector observation identified the injury hazards. Injury incidence, mechanism and the proportion of households with different hazards were described. Multivariable logistic regression explored associations between the number and type of home hazards and injuries.

Results Injuries severe enough to need treatment, or resulting in non-participation in usual activities for at least a day, were reported in 242/1042 (23.2%) children <5 years. The mean number of injury hazards per household was 14.98 (SD=4.48), range of 3–31. Regression analysis found an estimated increase of 31% in the odds of injury occurrence associated with each additional injury hazard found in the home (adjusted OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.42).

Conclusions A high proportion of young children in rural Nepal sustained injuries severe enough to miss a day of usual activities. Increased frequency of hazards was associated with an increased injury risk.

  • surveys
  • multiple injury
  • child
  • home

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  • Contributors TD and JAM were the supervision team for this PhD research. SB conducted the fieldwork and data analysis, and prepared the first draft of the manuscript. TD and JAM provided comments and feedback on the first and consequent versions. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding This study was funded by the University of the West of England (UWE Bristol), United Kingdom as part of a PhD Scholarship.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval Study approval was obtained from the Ethical Review Board (ERB) of the Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC), Nepal and the Faculty Research Ethics Committee (FREC) of the University of the West of England (UWE Bristol), United Kingdom.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.