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Demographic changes in US trampoline-related injuries from 1998 to 2017: cause for alarm
  1. Ryan E Fitzgerald1,
  2. Serena M Freiman2,
  3. Robert Kulwin1,
  4. Randall Loder1
  1. 1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
  2. 2 School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ryan E Fitzgerald, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA; rfitzgerald{at}


Background Recreational sports facilities with trampolines have become increasingly popular, and trampoline-related injuries incurred have been increasing. The goal of this study was to determine impact of recreational sports facilities on trampoline-associated injuries.

Methods An epidemiological study was performed using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). All patients in the NEISS database coded for trampoline injury were included. Statistical analyses were performed comparing home trampoline injuries (HTIs) and recreational sports facilities-related trampoline injuries (RSIs) for standard demographic variables using appropriated weighted statistical methods.

Results There were an estimated 1 376 659 emergency department (ED) visits for trampoline related injuries from 1998 to 2017; 125 811 were RSIs and 1 227 881 were HTIs. Between 2004 and 2017, the number of RSIs increased rapidly, while HTIs decreased. RSIs more often presented to large hospitals and HTIs to smaller ones. Strain/sprains were more associated with RSIs, whereas HTIs sustained more internal organ injuries. Lower extremity fractures occurred more frequently in RSIs and upper extremity fractures in HTIs. There was a greater percentage of RSIs in 15–34 years old age group (28.2% vs 13.6%). There were no differences by gender and race between HTIs and RSIs.

Conclusions The rapid expansion in recreational sports facilities with trampolines coincided with increasing RSIs. RSIs differed from HTIs regarding changes over time, hospital size, diagnosis and injury location. Recreational sports facilities with trampolines pose a public health hazard.

  • multiple injury
  • spinal cord injury
  • equipment
  • public health
  • fall
  • registry

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  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available in a public, open access repository. These data are collected from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database, which is public domain and can be found at(