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106 Daily firearm carriage and interpersonal violence patterns among a high-risk urban emergency department (ED) sample of youth and young adults
  1. Patrick Carter1,
  2. Maureen Walton1,
  3. Matt Myers1,
  4. Ken Resnicow2,
  5. Marc Zimmerman2,
  6. Jason Goldstick1,
  7. Rebecca Cunningham1
  1. 1University of Michigan Injury Prevention Center
  2. 2University of Michigan School of Public Health


Statement-of-Purpose Firearm violence is a leading cause of U.S. mortality. Intensive longitudinal daily data studies [ILDDS] have not examined firearm carriage or same-day/next-day predictors of carriage or violent conflict. Such data are necessary to inform violence interventions.

Methods/Approach ED youth/young adults (age=16–29) screening positive for substance misuse, firearm possession, and smartphone ownership were enrolled in a 30-day ILDDS. Daily assessment included 31-items about firearm carriage, violence, substance use, anger, anxiety/stress, and impulsivity. Separate conditional logistic regression models examined within- and next-day lagged associations with firearm carriage and violent conflict.

Results Across 30-days, 51% (n=27) of participants (n=53; M-age=24; 42%-male; 68%-Black; 87%-handgun possession) carried firearms, averaging 7 carriage-days/person. Carriage did not vary by day, week, day-of-week, or weekday/weekend. Firearms were carried 17% (180-of-1046) of days, with protection (97%) the primary reason-for-carriage and perceived low-risk (75%) the primary reason-for-not-carrying; 19% of participants disposed of their firearms. Examining between-person associations, no baseline differences were identified for participants carrying and not carrying firearms. Examining within-day factors, using illicit drugs (OR=7.5) and spending time in high-risk locations (OR=3.5) were associated with same-day carriage. No same-day associations were identified for other daily variables and carriage. Across 30-days, 26% of participants engaged in violent conflict (n=20 conflict-days; 63%-partner/27%-non-partner, 25%-firearm threats/use). Examining within-day, higher anger (OR=1.48), impulsivity (OR=1.28), stress/anxiety (OR=1.35), and riskier firearm behaviors (e.g., carriage drunk/high; OR=6.46) were associated with same-day conflict. Higher anger (OR=9.63) and lower self-efficacy for avoiding fights (OR=1.42) were associated with next-day conflict.

Conclusions Among high-risk youth, daily firearm carriage/violence rates were high. Results highlight carriage patterns and foci for interventions, including risky firearm behaviors, illicit-drug use, anxiety/stress, impulse control, anger management, and violence avoidance/refusal skills.

Significance/Contributions This is the first ILDDS examining firearm carriage/violence and identifies key data for future public health efforts addressing firearm violence.

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