Article Text

Burden of injury along the development spectrum: associations between the Socio-demographic Index and disability-adjusted life year estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
  1. Juanita A Haagsma1,
  2. Spencer L James2,
  3. Chris D Castle2,
  4. Zachary V Dingels2,
  5. Jack T Fox2,
  6. Erin B Hamilton2,
  7. Zichen Liu2,
  8. Lydia R Lucchesi2,
  9. Nicholas L S Roberts2,
  10. Dillon O Sylte2,
  11. Oladimeji M Adebayo3,
  12. Alireza Ahmadi4,
  13. Muktar Beshir Ahmed5,
  14. Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour6,
  15. Fares Alahdab7,
  16. Suliman A Alghnam8,
  17. Syed Mohamed Aljunid9,10,
  18. Rajaa M Al-Raddadi11,
  19. Ubai Alsharif12,
  20. Khalid Altirkawi13,
  21. Mina Anjomshoa14,
  22. Carl Abelardo T Antonio15,16,
  23. Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah17,18,
  24. Olatunde Aremu19,
  25. Amit Arora20,21,
  26. Hamid Asayesh22,
  27. Reza Assadi23,
  28. Ashish Awasthi24,
  29. Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla25,26,
  30. Shivanthi Balalla27,
  31. Amrit Banstola28,
  32. Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo29,
  33. Till Winfried Bärnighausen30,31,
  34. Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi32,33,
  35. Neeraj Bedi34,
  36. Masoud Behzadifar35,
  37. Meysam Behzadifar36,
  38. Corina Benjet37,
  39. Derrick A Bennett38,
  40. Isabela M Bensenor39,
  41. Soumyadeep Bhaumik40,
  42. Zulfiqar A Bhutta41,42,
  43. Ali Bijani43,
  44. Guilherme Borges37,
  45. Rohan Borschmann44,45,
  46. Dipan Bose46,
  47. Soufiane Boufous47,
  48. Alexandra Brazinova48,
  49. Julio Cesar Campuzano Rincon49,50,
  50. Rosario Cárdenas51,
  51. Juan J Carrero52,
  52. Félix Carvalho53,
  53. Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela54,55,
  54. Ferrán Catalá-López56,57,
  55. Jee-Young J Choi58,
  56. Devasahayam J Christopher59,
  57. Christopher Stephen Crowe60,
  58. Koustuv Dalal61,62,
  59. Ahmad Daryani63,
  60. Dragos Virgil Davitoiu64,65,
  61. Louisa Degenhardt2,66,
  62. Diego De Leo67,
  63. Jan-Walter De Neve30,
  64. Kebede Deribe68,69,
  65. Getenet Ayalew Dessie70,
  66. Gabrielle Aline deVeber71,
  67. Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne2,72,
  68. Linh Phuong Doan73,
  69. Kate A Dolan74,
  70. Tim Robert Driscoll75,
  71. Manisha Dubey76,
  72. Ziad El-Khatib77,78,
  73. Christian Lycke Ellingsen79,
  74. Maysaa El Sayed Zaki80,
  75. Aman Yesuf Endries81,
  76. Sharareh Eskandarieh82,
  77. Andre Faro83,
  78. Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad84,85,
  79. Eduarda Fernandes86,
  80. Irina Filip87,88,
  81. Florian Fischer89,
  82. Richard Charles Franklin90,
  83. Takeshi Fukumoto91,92,
  84. Kebede Embaye Gezae93,
  85. Tiffany K Gill94,
  86. Alessandra C Goulart95,96,
  87. Ayman Grada97,
  88. Yuming Guo98,99,
  89. Rahul Gupta100,101,
  90. Hassan Haghparast Bidgoli102,
  91. Arvin Haj-Mirzaian103,104,
  92. Arya Haj-Mirzaian103,105,
  93. Randah R Hamadeh106,
  94. Samer Hamidi107,
  95. Josep Maria Haro108,109,
  96. Hadi Hassankhani110,111,
  97. Hamid Yimam Hassen112,113,
  98. Rasmus Havmoeller114,
  99. Delia Hendrie115,
  100. Andualem Henok112,
  101. Martha Híjar116,117,
  102. Michael K Hole118,
  103. Enayatollah Homaie Rad119,120,
  104. Naznin Hossain121,122,
  105. Sorin Hostiuc123,124,
  106. Guoqing Hu125,
  107. Ehimario U Igumbor126,127,
  108. Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi128,
  109. Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani129,
  110. Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam130,131,
  111. Rebecca Q Ivers132,
  112. Kathryn H Jacobsen133,
  113. Nader Jahanmehr134,135,
  114. Mihajlo Jakovljevic136,
  115. Achala Upendra Jayatilleke137,138,
  116. Ravi Prakash Jha139,
  117. Jost B Jonas140,141,
  118. Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari142,
  119. Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak143,
  120. Mikk Jürisson144,
  121. Ali Kabir145,
  122. Rizwan Kalani146,
  123. Amir Kasaeian147,148,
  124. Abraham Getachew Kelbore149,
  125. Andre Pascal Kengne150,151,
  126. Yousef Saleh Khader152,
  127. Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie153,
  128. Nauman Khalid154,
  129. Ejaz Ahmad Khan155,
  130. Abdullah T Khoja156,157,
  131. Aliasghar A Kiadaliri158,
  132. Young-Eun Kim159,
  133. Daniel Kim160,
  134. Adnan Kisa161,
  135. Ai Koyanagi162,163,
  136. Barthelemy Kuate Defo164,165,
  137. Burcu Kucuk Bicer166,167,
  138. Manasi Kumar168,169,
  139. Ratilal Lalloo170,
  140. Hilton Lam171,
  141. Faris Hasan Lami172,
  142. Van C Lansingh173,174,
  143. Janet L Leasher175,
  144. Shanshan Li98,
  145. Shai Linn176,
  146. Raimundas Lunevicius177,178,
  147. Flavia R Machado179,
  148. Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek180,
  149. Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek181,
  150. Narayan Bahadur Mahotra182,
  151. Marek Majdan183,
  152. Azeem Majeed184,
  153. Reza Malekzadeh185,186,
  154. Manzoor Ahmad Malik187,188,
  155. Deborah Carvalho Malta189,
  156. Ana-Laura Manda190,
  157. Mohammad Ali Mansournia191,
  158. Benjamin Ballard Massenburg60,
  159. Pallab K Maulik192,193,
  160. Hailemariam Abiy Alemu Meheretu70,194,
  161. Man Mohan Mehndiratta195,196,
  162. Addisu Melese197,
  163. Walter Mendoza198,
  164. Melkamu Merid Mengesha199,
  165. Tuomo J Meretoja200,201,
  166. Atte Meretoja202,203,
  167. Tomislav Mestrovic204,205,
  168. Tomasz Miazgowski206,
  169. Ted R Miller115,207,
  170. GK Mini208,209,
  171. Erkin M Mirrakhimov210,211,
  172. Babak Moazen30,212,
  173. Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji213,
  174. Roghayeh Mohammadibakhsh214,
  175. Shafiu Mohammed30,215,
  176. Mariam Molokhia216,
  177. Lorenzo Monasta217,
  178. Stefania Mondello218,219,
  179. Pablo A Montero-Zamora220,221,
  180. Yoshan Moodley222,
  181. Mahmood Moosazadeh223,
  182. Ghobad Moradi224,225,
  183. Maziar Moradi-Lakeh226,
  184. Lidia Morawska227,
  185. Ilais Moreno Velásquez228,
  186. Shane Douglas Morrison229,
  187. Marilita M Moschos230,231,
  188. Seyyed Meysam Mousavi232,233,
  189. Srinivas Murthy234,
  190. Kamarul Imran Musa235,
  191. Gurudatta Naik236,
  192. Farid Najafi237,
  193. Vinay Nangia238,
  194. Bruno Ramos Nascimento239,
  195. Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe240,
  196. Ionut Negoi64,241,
  197. Trang Huyen Nguyen242,
  198. Son Hoang Nguyen242,
  199. Long Hoang Nguyen242,
  200. Huong Lan Thi Nguyen243,
  201. Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum244,245,
  202. Yirga Legesse Nirayo246,
  203. Richard Ofori-Asenso247,248,
  204. Felix Akpojene Ogbo249,
  205. In-Hwan Oh250,
  206. Olanrewaju Oladimeji251,252,
  207. Andrew T Olagunju253,254,
  208. Tinuke O Olagunju255,
  209. Pedro R Olivares256,
  210. Heather M Orpana257,258,
  211. Stanislav S Otstavnov259,260,
  212. Mahesh P A261,
  213. Smita Pakhale262,
  214. Eun-Kee Park263,
  215. George C Patton264,265,
  216. Konrad Pesudovs266,
  217. Michael R Phillips267,268,
  218. Suzanne Polinder1,
  219. Swayam Prakash269,
  220. Amir Radfar270,271,
  221. Anwar Rafay272,
  222. Alireza Rafiei273,274,
  223. Siavash Rahimi275,
  224. Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar276,
  225. Muhammad Aziz Rahman277,278,
  226. Rajesh Kumar Rai279,280,
  227. Kiana Ramezanzadeh281,
  228. Salman Rawaf184,282,
  229. David Laith Rawaf283,284,
  230. Andre M N Renzaho249,285,
  231. Serge Resnikoff286,287,
  232. Shahab Rezaeian288,
  233. Leonardo Roever289,
  234. Luca Ronfani217,
  235. Gholamreza Roshandel185,290,
  236. Yogesh Damodar Sabde291,
  237. Basema Saddik292,
  238. Payman Salamati276,
  239. Yahya Salimi237,293,
  240. Inbal Salz294,
  241. Abdallah M Samy295,
  242. Juan Sanabria296,297,
  243. Lidia Sanchez Riera298,299,
  244. Milena M Santric Milicevic300,301,
  245. Maheswar Satpathy302,303,
  246. Monika Sawhney304,
  247. Susan M Sawyer44,264,
  248. Sonia Saxena305,
  249. Mete Saylan306,
  250. Ione J C Schneider307,
  251. David C Schwebel308,
  252. Soraya Seedat309,
  253. Sadaf G Sepanlou185,186,
  254. Masood Ali Shaikh310,
  255. Mehran Shams-Beyranvand311,312,
  256. Morteza Shamsizadeh313,
  257. Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini276,
  258. Aziz Sheikh314,315,
  259. Jiabin Shen316,
  260. Mika Shigematsu317,
  261. Rahman Shiri318,
  262. Ivy Shiue319,
  263. João Pedro Silva53,
  264. Jasvinder A Singh320,321,
  265. Dhirendra Narain Sinha322,323,
  266. Adauto Martins Soares Filho324,
  267. Joan B Soriano325,326,
  268. Sergey Soshnikov327,
  269. Ireneous N Soyiri328,329,
  270. Vladimir I Starodubov330,
  271. Dan J Stein323,331,
  272. Mark A Stokes332,
  273. Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan333,
  274. Jacob E Sunshine334,
  275. Bryan L Sykes335,
  276. Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos336,337,
  277. Karen M Tabb338,
  278. Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi226,339,
  279. Gizachew Assefa Tessema340,341,
  280. Jarnail Singh Thakur342,
  281. Khanh Bao Tran343,344,
  282. Bach Xuan Tran345,
  283. Lorainne Tudor Car346,
  284. Olalekan A Uthman347,
  285. Benjamin S Chudi Uzochukwu348,
  286. Pascual R Valdez349,350,
  287. Elena Varavikova351,
  288. Ana Maria Nogales Vasconcelos352,353,
  289. Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian354,355,
  290. Francesco S Violante356,357,
  291. Vasily Vlassov358,
  292. Yasir Waheed359,
  293. Yuan-Pang Wang360,
  294. Tissa Wijeratne361,362,
  295. Andrea Sylvia Winkler363,364,
  296. Priyanka Yadav365,
  297. Yuichiro Yano366,
  298. Muluken Azage Yenesew194,
  299. Paul Yip367,368,
  300. Engida Yisma369,
  301. Naohiro Yonemoto370,
  302. Mustafa Z Younis371,372,
  303. Chuanhua Yu373,374,
  304. Shamsa Zafar375,
  305. Zoubida Zaidi376,
  306. Sojib Bin Zaman377,378,
  307. Mohammad Zamani379,
  308. Yong Zhao380,
  309. Sanjay Zodpey381,
  310. Simon I Hay2,382,
  311. Alan D Lopez2,383,
  312. Ali H Mokdad2,382,
  313. Theo Vos2,382
  1. 1 Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
  2. 2 Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  3. 3 Department of Medicine, University College Hospital Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  4. 4 Department of Anesthesiology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  5. 5 Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
  6. 6 Higher National School of Veterinary Medicine, Algiers, Algeria
  7. 7 Evidence Based Practice Center, Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
  8. 8 Department of Population Health Research, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  9. 9 Department of Health Policy and Management, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait
  10. 10 International Centre for Casemix and Clinical Coding, National University of Malaysia, Bandar Tun Razak, Malaysia
  11. 11 Department of Family and Community Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  12. 12 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Knappschaftskrankenhaus Bochum, Bochum, Germany
  13. 13 King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  14. 14 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
  15. 15 Department of Health Policy and Administration, University of the Philippines Manila, Manila, Philippines
  16. 16 Department of Applied Social Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
  17. 17 Department of Sociology and Social Work, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
  18. 18 Center for International Health, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
  19. 19 School of Health Sciences, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UK
  20. 20 School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  21. 21 Oral Health Services, Sydney Local Health District, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  22. 22 Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
  23. 23 Education Development Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
  24. 24 Indian Institute of Public Health, Gandhinagar, India
  25. 25 The Judith Lumley Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  26. 26 General Office for Research and Technological Transfer, Peruvian National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru
  27. 27 School of Public Health, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
  28. 28 Department of Research, Public Health Perspective Nepal, Pokhara-Lekhnath Metropolitan City, Nepal
  29. 29 School of Psychology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  30. 30 Heidelberg Institute of Global Health (HIGH), Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany
  31. 31 T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  32. 32 Department of Psychiatry, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, California, USA
  33. 33 Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA
  34. 34 Department of Community Medicine, Gandhi Medical College Bhopal, Bhopal, India
  35. 35 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
  36. 36 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
  37. 37 Department of Epidemiology and Psychosocial Research, Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz National Institute of Psychiatry, Mexico City, Mexico
  38. 38 Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
  39. 39 Department of Internal Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  40. 40 The George Institute for Global Health, New Delhi, India
  41. 41 Centre for Global Child Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  42. 42 Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
  43. 43 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
  44. 44 Centre for Adolescent Health, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  45. 45 School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  46. 46 Transport & Digital Development, World Bank, Washington, District of Columbia, USA
  47. 47 Transport and Road Safety (TARS) Research Department, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  48. 48 Institute of Epidemiology, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia
  49. 49 National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico
  50. 50 School of Medicine, University of the Valley of Cuernavaca, Cuernavaca, Mexico
  51. 51 Department of Population and Health, Metropolitan Autonomous University, Mexico City, Mexico
  52. 52 Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  53. 53 UCIBIO, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
  54. 54 Colombian National Health Observatory, National Institute of Health, Bogota, Colombia
  55. 55 Epidemiology and Public Health Evaluation Group, National University of Colombia, Bogota, Colombia
  56. 56 National School of Public Health, Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid, Spain
  57. 57 Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  58. 58 Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Science, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
  59. 59 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Christian Medical College and Hospital (CMC), Vellore, India
  60. 60 Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  61. 61 Institute of Public Health Kalyani, Kalyani, India
  62. 62 School of Health Science, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden
  63. 63 Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  64. 64 Department of General Surgery, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
  65. 65 Department of Surgery, Clinical Emergency Hospital Sf. Pantelimon, Bucharest, Romania
  66. 66 National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  67. 67 Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention, Griffith University, Mount Gravatt, Queensland, Australia
  68. 68 Department of Global Health and Infection, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK
  69. 69 School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  70. 70 Department of Nursing, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia
  71. 71 Centre for Global Child Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  72. 72 Department of Community Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
  73. 73 Center of Excellence in Health Service Management, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam
  74. 74 University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  75. 75 Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  76. 76 United Nations World Food Programme, New Delhi, India
  77. 77 Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  78. 78 World Health Programme, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec, Canada
  79. 79 Department of Pathology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway
  80. 80 Department of Clinical Pathology, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
  81. 81 Public Health Department, Saint Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  82. 82 Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  83. 83 Department of Psychology, Federal University of Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, Brazil
  84. 84 Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  85. 85 Division of Neurology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  86. 86 REQUIMTE/LAQV, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
  87. 87 Psychiatry Department, Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA
  88. 88 School of Health Sciences, A.T. Still University, Mesa, Arizona, USA
  89. 89 Department of Population Medicine and Health Services Research, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany
  90. 90 College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Science, James Cook University, Douglas, Queensland, Australia
  91. 91 Gene Expression & Regulation Program, The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
  92. 92 Department of Dermatology, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan
  93. 93 Department of Biostatistics, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
  94. 94 Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  95. 95 Center for Clinical and Epidemiological Research, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  96. 96 Internal Medicine Department, University Hospital, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  97. 97 School of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  98. 98 School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  99. 99 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
  100. 100 March of Dimes, Arlington, Virginia, USA
  101. 101 School of Public Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA
  102. 102 Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK
  103. 103 Department of Pharmacology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  104. 104 Obesity Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  105. 105 Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
  106. 106 Department of Family and Community Medicine, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain
  107. 107 School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
  108. 108 Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health Network (CiberSAM), Madrid, Spain
  109. 109 Research and Development Unit, San Juan de Dios Sanitary Park, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain
  110. 110 School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  111. 111 Independent Consultant, Tabriz, Iran
  112. 112 Department of Public Health, Mizan-Tepi University, Teppi, Ethiopia
  113. 113 Unit of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium
  114. 114 Clinical Sciences, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
  115. 115 School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  116. 116 Research Coordination, AC Environments Foundation, Cuernavaca, Mexico
  117. 117 CISS, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico
  118. 118 Department of Pediatrics, Dell Medical School, University of Texas Austin, Austin, Texas, USA
  119. 119 Guilan Road Trauma Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
  120. 120 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
  121. 121 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  122. 122 Department of Pharmacology, Bangladesh Industrial Gases Limited, Tangail, Bangladesh
  123. 123 Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Legal Medicine and Bioethics, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
  124. 124 Clinical Legal Medicine Department, National Institute of Legal Medicine Mina Minovici, Bucharest, Romania
  125. 125 Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Central South University, Changsha, China
  126. 126 School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa
  127. 127 Department of Public Health, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa
  128. 128 Department of Community Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  129. 129 Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  130. 130 Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia
  131. 131 Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  132. 132 Injury Division, The George Institute for Global Health, Newtown, New South Wales, Australia
  133. 133 Department of Global and Community Health, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA
  134. 134 School of Management and Medical Education, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  135. 135 Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  136. 136 Department for Health Care and Public Health, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia
  137. 137 Institute of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka
  138. 138 Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka
  139. 139 Department of Community Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
  140. 140 Department of Ophthalmology, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany
  141. 141 Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing, China
  142. 142 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  143. 143 Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Opole, Opole, Poland
  144. 144 Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
  145. 145 Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  146. 146 Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  147. 147 Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  148. 148 Pars Advanced and Minimally Invasive Medical Manners Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  149. 149 Department of Dermatology, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia
  150. 150 Non-communicable Diseases Research Unit, Medical Research Council South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa
  151. 151 Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
  152. 152 Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Ramtha, Jordan
  153. 153 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
  154. 154 School of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
  155. 155 Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan
  156. 156 Department of Public Health, Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  157. 157 Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
  158. 158 Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  159. 159 Department of Preventive Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea
  160. 160 Department of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  161. 161 School of Health Sciences, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway
  162. 162 CIBERSAM, San Juan de Dios Sanitary Park, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain
  163. 163 Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain
  164. 164 Department of Demography, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  165. 165 Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
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  211. 211 Department of Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease, National Center of Cardiology and Internal Disease, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
  212. 212 Institute of Addiction Research (ISFF), Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Frankfurt, Germany
  213. 213 Department of Biostatistics, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
  214. 214 Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
  215. 215 Health Systems and Policy Research Unit, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
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  220. 220 Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA
  221. 221 Center for Health Systems Research, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico
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  231. 231 Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece
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  251. 251 HAST, Human Sciences Research Council, Durban, South Africa
  252. 252 School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Namibia, Osakhati, Namibia
  253. 253 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
  254. 254 Department of Psychiatry, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
  255. 255 Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  256. 256 Institute of Physical Activity and Health, Autonomous University of Chile, Talca, Chile
  257. 257 Applied Research Division, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  258. 258 School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  259. 259 Analytical Center, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Russia
  260. 260 Committee for the Comprehensive Assessment of Medical Devices and Information Technology, Health Technology Assessment Association, Moscow, Russia
  261. 261 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeswara Academy of Health Education and Research, Mysore, India
  262. 262 Department of Medicine, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  263. 263 Department of Medical Humanities and Social Medicine, Kosin University, Busan, South Korea
  264. 264 Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  265. 265 Population Health Department, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  266. 266 School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  267. 267 Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
  268. 268 Department of Psychiatry, Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York City, New York, USA
  269. 269 Department of Nephrology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
  270. 270 College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA
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  280. 280 Department of Economics, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
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  283. 283 WHO Collaborating Centre for Public Health Education and Training, Imperial College London, London, UK
  284. 284 University College London Hospitals, London, UK
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  369. 369 School of Allied Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
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  372. 372 School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
  373. 373 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
  374. 374 Global Health Institute, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
  375. 375 Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, A.C.S. Medical College and Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan
  376. 376 Department of Epidemiology, University Hospital of Setif, Setif, Algeria
  377. 377 Maternal and Child Health Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  378. 378 Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  379. 379 Student Research Committee, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
  380. 380 School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
  381. 381 Indian Institute of Public Health, Public Health Foundation of India, Gurugram, India
  382. 382 Department of Health Metrics Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  383. 383 University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Queensland, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Spencer L James, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98121, USA; spencj{at}uw.edu

Abstract

Background The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates.

Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm—the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate.

Results For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced.

Conclusions The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.

  • epidemiology
  • descriptive epidemiology
  • burden of disease
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Footnotes

  • Funding Funding for GBD 2017 was provided by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • Competing interests Dr. Carl Abelardo T Antonio reports personal fees from Johnson & Johnson (Philippines), Inc., outside the submitted work. Dr. Jasvinder Singh reports personal fees from Crealta/Horizon, Medisys, Fidia, UBM LLC, Medscape, WebMD, Clinical Care options, Clearview healthcare partners, Putnam associates, Spherix, the National Institutes of Health and the American College of Rheumatology, stock options in Amarin pharmaceuticals and Viking pharmaceuticals, participating in the steering committee of OMERACT, an international organization that develops measures for clinical trials and receives arm’s length funding from 12 pharmaceutical companies, including Amgen, Janssen, Novartis, Roche, UCB Group, Ardea/Astra Zeneca, Bristol Myers Squibb, Celgene, EliLilly, Horizon Pharma, Pfizer, and Centrexion. Dr. Josep Maria Haro reports personal fees from Roche and Lundbeck, and that the institute for which they work provides services to Eli Lilly and Co., outside the submitted work. Dr. Mete Saylan is an employee of Bayer AG, outside the submitted work. Dr Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam is funded by National Heart Foundation of Australia and supported by a senior research fellowship from Deakin University, outside the submitted work. Dr. Spencer James reports grants from Sanofi Pasteur, outside the submitted work.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available in a public, open access repository (ghdx.healthdata.org). Select data are available on reasonable request. Select input data may be obtained from a third party and are not publicly available.

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