Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Impacts of helmet law on the changes in potential years of life lost due to traffic injury: a multiple-province evaluation in Vietnam
  1. Dung Phung1,2,
  2. Ha Trong Nguyen3,
  3. Cordia Chu2,
  4. Ross Sadler2,
  5. Anh Mai Luong4,
  6. Huyen Thi Nguyen4,
  7. Tuan Cong Pham2,
  8. Cunrui Huang1
  1. 1 Health Management and Policy, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China
  2. 2 School of Medicine, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  3. 3 Injury Division, The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  4. 4 Vietnam Health Environment Management Agency, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam
  1. Correspondence to Dr Dung Phung, School of Medicine, Griffith University-Gold Coast Campus, Southport, QLD 4215, Australia; d.phung{at}; Dr Cunrui Huang, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China; huangcr{at}


Introduction This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the helmet law on the changes in potential years of life lost (PYLL) due to traffic mortality and to examine modification effects of socioeconomic factors on the impacts in Vietnam.

Methods We applied an interrupted time series design using the Bayesian framework to estimate the impact of the law at the provincial level. Then, we used random effects meta-analysis to estimate the impact of the law at the country level and to examine the modification effects of socioeconomic factors.

Results The results indicate that the impacts varied among the provinces. These impacts could be classified by four main groups comprising positive impact, and positive impact without sustainability, possible positive impact, negative or inconsistent impact. For the country-level impact, the results reveal a significantly consistent change in monthly PYLLs at the level of 18 per 100 000 persons, and the post-trend was stable without significant change. The results of meta-regression show that 1 unit increase in the population density (persons/km2), migration rate (%) and income (×1000 dong) are non-significantly associated with increases of PYLLs at 1.3, 27 and 27 per 100 000 person-months, respectively, whereas 1% increase in literacy associated with a decrease of PYLL at 44 per 100 000 person-months.

Discussion Further studies should be warranted to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the law implementation, including its acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, feasibility, cost-effectiveness and sustainability.

  • helmet
  • regulation
  • traumatic brain injury
  • burden of disease
  • process/impact evaluation

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Correction notice This article has been corrected since it was published. Co-correspondence and author name, Cunrui Huang, have been updated.

  • Funding DP was supported by the research fellowship from Sun Yat-Sen University, China.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.