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Evaluation of an integrated multisector campaign to increase child helmet use in Vietnam
  1. Le Dinh Trong Nhan1,2,3,
  2. Lukas Parker2,4,
  3. Mai Thi Hoai Son2,
  4. Erin M Parker5,
  5. Matthew R Moore6,
  6. Mirjam Sidik2,
  7. Natalie Draisin7
  1. 1 Department of Public Health, Institute of Public Health, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
  2. 2 AIP Foundation, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
  3. 3 Field Epidemiology Training Program, Ministry of Health, Ha Noi, Vietnam
  4. 4 School of Media and Communication, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  5. 5 Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
  6. 6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
  7. 7 FIA Foundation, Washington, District of Columbia, USA
  1. Correspondence to Le Dinh Trong Nhan, Institute of Public Health, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam; ldtnhan{at}


Objective This study presents child helmet use before, during and after implementing the Vietnamese National Child Helmet Action Plan (NCHAP) and evaluates its effect on child helmet use. The NCHAP, an integrated multisector campaign, incorporated a wide-scale public awareness campaign, school-based interventions, increased police patrolling and enforcement, and capacity building and support to relevant government departments in target provinces.

Methods In Vietnam’s three largest cities, 100 schools in 20 districts were selected to monitor motorcycle helmet use behaviour. The effectiveness of the NCHAP was measured by unannounced, filmed observations of student motorcycle passengers and their adult drivers as they arrived or left their schools at four points. Baseline observations at each school were conducted in March 2014, with subsequent observations in April 2015, December 2015 and May 2016.

Results Across the 84 218 observed students, student helmet prevalence increased from 36.1% in March 2014 to 69.3% immediately after the initiation in April 2015. Subsequent observations in December 2015 and May 2016 showed a reduction and stabilisation of helmet use, with 49.8% and 56.9% of students wearing helmets, respectively. Helmet use in students was higher when adult drivers were also wearing helmets.

Conclusions Integrated multisectoral interventions between governments, civil society and the corporate sector that incorporate communications, school-based education, incentives for change and police enforcement have the potential to increase helmet use among children. Future integrated campaigns may be more effective with an increased focus on parents and other adult drivers given their potential influence on child helmet use.

  • helmet
  • enforcement
  • campaign
  • behavior change

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  • Contributors All authors reviewed the manuscript and provided revisions several times. LDTN, LP, MTHS, EMP and MRM were primarily responsible for drafting, revisions and analytic approach. LDTN and MTHS were primarily responsible for managing and analysing the data. MS and ND were primarily responsible for implementing the programme. MTHS and MS were primarily responsible for data collection. LDTN and MTHS conceptualised and helped interpret the data. All authors approved the submission for publication.

  • Disclaimer The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  • Competing interests AIP Foundation authors are reporting on evaluation results of the National Child Helmet Action Plan, of which it was a supporting international partner.

  • Ethics approval Institutional review board approval was not required. The data were collected as part of routine monitoring to evaluate the impact of the multisectoral helmet use campaign. The activity did not involve the interaction with human subjects. Given that data collection involved observing children around schools, permission was received from the provincial Department of Education and Training of each city to conduct the observations.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.