Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Enduring enrolments in West Virginia’s Medicaid programme due to severe injury
  1. Michael Smith1,
  2. Ted R Miller2,3,
  3. Eduard Zaloshnja4
  1. 1 Department of Pharmacy, Oklahoma University College of Pharmacy, Clinical and Administrative Sciences, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA
  2. 2 Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Calverton, Maryland, USA
  3. 3 Curtin University Centre for Population Health Research, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia
  4. 4 Top Channel, Tirana, Albania
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ted R Miller, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 11720 Beltsville Drive, Suite 900 Calverton, MD 20705, USA; miller{at}


Objective To assess frequency, duration and costs of Medicaid conversions that occur when severe injury causes patients to enrol in Medicaid to pay their hospital bills. Once enrolled, Medicaid pays all their medical bills, not simply their injury bill.

Data sources 2000–2005 West Virginia Medicaid claims data and 2000–2006 eligibility data for new enrollees under the age of 65. To model national costs, published Medicaid conversion rates across 14 states for 2003 and 2008 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Program Nationwide Inpatient Sample data.

Methods We identified enrollees who had hospital inpatient claims for injury within 30 days of enrolment, then tabulated eligibility duration and payments by year and in aggregate. For those with open-ended eligibility, we assumed future annual claims payments would equal average payments in eligibility years 5–6. We multiplied the mean payments data adjusted to national prices with the estimated conversions nationally.

Results Overall, 5.4% of hospitalised patients with injury in West Virginia converted to Medicaid, with 17% of conversions on Medicaid 7 years post injury. In 2010 dollars, Medicaid payments averaged $93 900 per conversion for non-injury medical care before the age of 65. Conversions added an estimated $87 in payments for non-injury care to governments’ medical payments per medically treated injury in the USA. They added 14% to governments’ gunshot and assault medical payments, 7.5% to its road crash medical payments and 6% to its total injury medical payments.

Conclusions These findings increase the rationale for governments to partner in injury prevention efforts.

  • medicaid
  • costs
  • conversion
  • firearm injury
  • assault
  • crash

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Contributors All authors contributed to raising the funding, designing the analysis, interpreting the results, drafting the manuscript, editing it into final version and approving the final version. MS acquired the data, cleaned them and analysed them, in part using code written by EZ.

  • Funding This research was funded as a research project under West Virginia University’s Injury Prevention ResourceCentre grant from the CDC, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention with additional support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Public Health Law Research project. Findings and conclusions in this paper are the authors’ and do not necessarily represent the official position of the funders.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.