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Children and motorcycles: a systematic review of risk factors and interventions
  1. Julie Brown1,
  2. Lisa Schonstein2,
  3. Rebecca Ivers2,
  4. Lisa Keay2
  1. 1 NeuRA and School of Medicine, UNSW, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  2. 2 The George Institute for Global Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Julie Brown, Neuroscience Research Australia, Level 4, Margarete Ainsworth Building, Barker St, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia; j.brown{at}


Objective To (i) identify person, vehicle and environmental risk factors for injury among children using motorcycles, and (ii) identify and appraise studies of interventions designed to reduce the occurrence or severity of injury among children using these vehicles.

Method A systematic approach was used to collate data from published and grey literature globally on risk factors for motorcycles injury, and studies reporting evaluation of interventions to counter this injury. Academic data sets and public search engines (including Google and Yahoo!) were used. Websites of major conferences, organisations and networks were also searched. Finally, researchers and units working in this area were also contacted by email or phone seeking relevant research. All study types were eligible, excluding clinical case studies. The Haddon Matrix was used as a framework for synthesising the data.

Results The review revealed that robust investigations of risk factors for injury among children using motorcycles are relatively scarce, and there are few interventional studies reporting effectiveness of countermeasures to this problem. Epidemiological literature is generally limited to discussion of human factors, and less attention has been given to vehicle and environmental factors. Furthermore, much of the literature is commentaries and descriptive studies. There has been little rigorous study of risk factors unique to children riding motorcycles.

Conclusions This first attempt at extensively reviewing literature related to risk factors and interventions for children and motorcycles using the Haddon Matrix as a framework clearly highlights need for more rigorous study as information is lacking in all cells of this matrix.

  • Risk/Determinants
  • Interventions

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  • Contributors JB was involved in the design of the project, reviewed full text articles, extracted data from selected articles, synthesised the data, graded evidence and drafted the manuscript. LS conducted the literature search and critically revised the manuscript. RI was involved in design of the project and critically revised the manuscript. LK was involved in the design of the project, oversaw the literature search, graded evidence and critically revised the manuscript.

  • Funding The review was completed as part of a larger review of power two-wheeler-associated and three-wheeler-associated injuries supported by the WHO. Julie Brown is supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council Career Development Fellowship.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.