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52 A gap analysis of evaluated evidence-based interventions to reduce sexual assaults on college campuses using the haddon matrix
  1. Maryanne Bailey1,
  2. Patricia Mahoney1,
  3. Colby Gabel2,
  4. Andrea Gielen1
  1. 1US Johns Hopkins Centre for Injury Research and Policy
  2. 2US Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health


One in five undergraduate women have reported experiencing sexual assault since entering college. This study aimed to: 1) review the literature on evaluated interventions addressing sexual assault on college campuses, 2) provide an analysis of this literature using the Haddon Matrix as an organising framework, and 3) identify gaps in the evidence and opportunities for research and practice. A systematic literature review was conducted in October 2016 using Pubmed, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS. Included studies were published in a peer-reviewed journal between January 2001 and September 2016, used an experimental or quasi-experimental design, were conducted with English speaking college undergraduate students in the US and reported on sexual assault, sexual violence, and/or rape experiences, knowledge, beliefs, and behaviours. Full text articles were reviewed, coded and categorised in the Haddon Phase-Factor Matrix. 194 abstracts were initially identified. After removing duplicates, 170 were reviewed for potential inclusion, and 29 articles were included. 21 studies were RCTs, 8 were quasi-experimental designs. Interventions varied across the studies, although many (n=14) involved bystander interventions. Most interventions were categorised as addressing the host (victim/potential victim) and the social environment (bystanders), and across all phases (pre-event, event, and post-event) of an assault. Impacts were typically assessed by self-report measures administered before the program and at least at one follow up point. Most studies reported a statistically significant change in at least one outcome measure, such as decreased rape myth acceptance and increased bystander efficacy and intentions. Few evaluated interventions were identified in the peer-reviewed literature. Few focused on the agent (perpetrator), and none addressed the physical environment (e.g., presence of security). These results can be used by professionals working to reduce sexual assault on college campuses to draw from the evidence about what works. A number of conceptual and practical gaps for future research are identified.

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