Background Suicide at any age is a Public Health problem. The last 50 years, the frequency of this problem has increased worldwide, especially among adolescents. In 2005, WHO developed a list of suicide mortality rate from 101 countries, among which Mexico has the 79th position (4.0/100,000). The objective of this study was to analyse the mortality trend by suicide in Mexico from 1979 to 2012.
Methods This study was conducted from national databases of 1979–2012, from which analysed only the codes E950 to E959 and X60 to X84 of the 9th and 10th International Classification of Diseases. From these codes, the variables analysed were age, sex, year of register and place of residence. In the statistical analysis, we calculated mortality rates and standardised mortality rates. The standardised mortality rate was estimated from the national census 2005 as standard population and grouping by age.
Results In the period from 1979 to 2012 registered 100,420 deaths by suicide, the ratio by sex was 4.8 men by each woman, and the rest was none specified. From 1979 to 1984, the trend was descending (p = 0.19), but since 1984 to 2012 it was ascending from 1.31/100,000 in 1984 to 3.90/100,000 in 2012 (p ≤ 0.001). The mortality trend by sex, in men the mortality rate was ascending from 2.47/100,000 in 1984 to 7.37/100,000 (p ≤ 0.001) in 2012. In women, 0.43/100,000 in 1984 to 1.77/100,000 (p ≤ 0.001) in 2012. In the last 20th years, the age groups with high mortality were 10–14 (57.49%) and 15–19 (38.56%). The states with high mortality rates in 2012 were Aguascalientes, Quintana Roo and Chihuahua, while those with low rates were Guerrero, Oaxaca y Baja California.
Conclusions Suicide is a Public Health problem that increased constantly the last 28 years and it requires a deep analysis of other variables such as mental health, social problems and other kind of problems that affect to individual as well family and society in their psychological well-being.