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Developing injury indicators for Canadian children and youth: a modified-Delphi approach
  1. Ian Pike1,2,
  2. Shannon Piedt2,
  3. Lynne Warda3,
  4. Natalie Yanchar4,
  5. Colin Macarthur5,
  6. Shelina Babul1,2,
  7. Alison K Macpherson6
  1. 1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
  2. 2Department of Developmental Neurosciences and Child Health, BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit, Centre for Community Child Health Research, Child and Family Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada
  3. 3Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Manitoba Institute of Child Health Research, Winnipeg, Canada
  4. 4Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada
  5. 5Bloorview Kids Rehab, Toronto, Canada
  6. 6School of Kinesiology and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Shannon Piedt, Department of Developmental Neurosciences and Child Health, British Columbia Injury Research and Prevention Unit, L408-4480 Oak Street, Vancouver V6H 3V4, British Columbia, Canada; spiedt{at}


Objective To develop a set of national injury indicators for Canadian children and youth which will eventually be used to reflect and monitor identified prevention priorities.

Methods The Canadian Injury Indicators Development Team brought together injury researchers, policy makers, and practitioners to develop injury indicators in the following areas: overall health services implications; motor vehicle occupant; sports, recreation, and leisure; violence; and trauma care, quality, and outcomes. A modified-Delphi process was used to establish a set of indicators that met evidence-based criteria, were useful, and that would prompt action. Each indicator was rated by 132 respondent injury experts and stakeholders on its usefulness and ability to prompt action to reduce injury among Canadian children and youth.

Results From an initial list of 51 indicators, a refined set of 34 indicators was established. Indicators were grouped into three categories related to: policies; risk and protective factors; and outcomes. Indicators related to motor vehicle injury were rated as most useful and most able to prompt action. Injury mortality rate and injury hospitalisation rate were also rated highly for both usefulness and ability to prompt action. Policy, violence, sport and recreation, and trauma indicators were all rated higher for usefulness, but somewhat lower for ability to prompt action.

Conclusion Results suggest that a broad-based modified-Delphi process is an important first step in developing useful and relevant indicators for injury prevention activity focused on Canadian children and youth.

  • Injury indicators
  • modified-Delphi
  • surveillance
  • adolescent
  • child
  • health services

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  • Funding Provided by the BC Child and Youth Health Research Network (CYHRNet) and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR).

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.