Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Seasonal variation in hospital admission for road traffic injuries in England: analysis of hospital statistics
  1. M Gill1,
  2. M J Goldacre2
  1. 1
    Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
  2. 2
    Unit of Health-Care Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
  1. Correspondence to Professor M J Goldacre, Unit of Health-Care Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK; michael.goldacre{at}


Objective: To report on seasonal variation in hospital admissions for traffic injuries to car and truck occupants, motorcyclists, cyclists, and pedestrians.

Methods: Descriptive study of hospital admission statistics in England, 1999–2004. Main outcome measures: national average monthly admissions for injury; severity of injury, defined as death in hospital or a hospital admission lasting four days or more.

Results: Admissions for car occupants were highest in the winter months but seasonal variation was not great (highest and lowest months: December, 16% above monthly average; June, 5% below). There was a summer peak and winter trough in admissions for adult cyclists (June, 34% above average; December, 27% below) and motorcyclists (August, 33% above average; January, 43% below). Admissions for child pedestrians were highest in late spring and lowest in mid-winter (May, 24% above average; December, 28% below). By contrast, admissions for adult pedestrians were higher in winter than summer (December, 33% above average; July, 17% below). From April to September, there were more admissions for pedestrians and cyclists in England (44 875 in the six years of the study) than for car occupants (34 582). For cyclists, proportionally more injuries in the winter months were severe. Severity of injuries to car occupants did not show seasonal variation.

Conclusions: The public health “toll” of traffic injuries, measured as total numbers of people injured, varies substantially by season. Although it is important to reduce all injuries, the safety of pedestrians and cyclists, as unprotected road users, needs particular attention.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Funding The Unit of Health-Care Epidemiology is funded by the NIHR National Coordinating Centre for Research Capacity Building. The views in this paper do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding body.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Contributorship MG proposed the study and wrote the first draft. MJG designed the analysis. Both authors interpreted the results, wrote the final manuscript, and are guarantors.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.