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Establishment of a comprehensive drug overdose fatality surveillance system in Kentucky to inform drug overdose prevention policies, interventions and best practices

Abstract

Background According to the National Center for Health Statistics, Kentucky had the third highest drug overdose fatality rate in the nation in 2015 at 29.9 drug overdose fatalities per 100 000 population.

Objective The elevated drug overdose fatality rate necessitated the development and implementation of a comprehensive multisource drug overdose fatality surveillance system (DOFSS).

Methods DOFSS stakeholder work group members and data sources were identified, and memorandums of understanding were established. The following data sources were used to establish DOFSS: (1) death certificates; (2) autopsy reports; (3) toxicology result reports; (4) coroner reports; and (5) Kentucky All Schedule Prescription Electronic Reporting (KASPER) (prescription drug monitoring programme) data. Drug overdose poisonings were defined using Injury Surveillance Workgroup 7 definitions. Analyses were performed to investigate possible drug overdose-related health disparities for disabled drug overdose decedents and to characterise gabapentin in drug overdose deaths.

Results DOFSS identified 2106 drug overdose poisoning fatalities in Kentucky for 2013–2014. Identification of specific drugs involved in drug overdose deaths increased from 75.8% using a single data source to 97.5% using multiple data sources. Disabled drug overdose decedents were significantly more likely to have an active prescription for drugs identified in their system compared with the non-disabled drug overdose decedents. Toxicology data showed increased gabapentin involvement in drug overdose deaths from 2.9% in 2013 to 17% in 2014. Alprazolam was found most often in combination with gabapentin (41%), along with various other benzodiazepines and prescription opioids.

Conclusions A comprehensive multisource DOFSS improved drug overdose fatality surveillance by increasing completeness of data and data quality. DOFSS is a model that can be considered by other states to enhance their efforts in tracking drug overdose fatalities, identifying new and emerging trends, and informing policies and best practices, to address and reduce drug overdoses.

  • surveillance
  • poisoning
  • mortality
  • drugs
  • implementation/translation
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