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Estimated total costs from non-fatal and fatal bicycle crashes in the USA: 1997–2013
  1. Thomas W Gaither1,
  2. Thomas A Sanford1,
  3. Mohannad A Awad1,
  4. E Charles Osterberg1,
  5. Gregory P Murphy1,
  6. Bruce A Lawrence2,
  7. Ted R Miller2,3,
  8. Benjamin N Breyer1,4
  1. 1Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
  2. 2Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Calverton, Maryland, USA
  3. 3Centre for Population Health Research, Curtin University, Perth, Australia
  4. 4Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Benjamin N Breyer, Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center, 1001 Potrero Ave Suite 3A20, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA; benjamin.breyer{at}ucsf.edu

Abstract

Introduction Emergency department visits and hospital admissions resulting from adult bicycle trauma have increased dramatically. Annual medical costs and work losses of these incidents last were estimated for 2005 and quality-of-life losses for 2000.

Methods We estimated costs associated with adult bicycle injuries in the USA using 1997–2013 non-fatal incidence data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System with cost estimates from the Consumer Product Safety Commission's Injury Cost Model, and 1999–2013 fatal incidence data from the National Vital Statistics System costed by similar methods.

Results Approximately 3.8 million non-fatal adult bicycle injuries were reported during the study period and 9839 deaths. In 2010 dollars, estimated adult bicycle injury costs totalled $24.4 billion in 2013. Estimated injury costs per mile bicycled fell from $2.85 in 2001 to $2.35 in 2009. From 1999 to 2013, total estimated costs were $209 billion due to non-fatal bicycle injuries and $28 billion due to fatal injuries. Inflation-free annual costs in the study period increased by 137% for non-fatal injuries and 23% for fatal injuries. The share of non-fatal costs associated with injuries to riders age 45 and older increased by 1.6% (95% CI 1.4% to 1.9%) annually. The proportion of costs due to incidents that occurred on a street or highway steadily increased by 0.8% (95% CI 0.4% to 1.3%) annually.

Conclusions Inflation-free costs per case associated with non-fatal bicycle injuries are increasing. The growth in costs is especially associated with rising ridership, riders 45 and older, and street/highway crashes.

  • Injury Diagnosis

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Footnotes

  • Contributors TWG: data analysis, interpretation of data, manuscript writing and editing. TAS: project idea, critical review of manuscript. MAA: data analysis, critical review of manuscript. ECO: interpretation of data, critical review of manuscript. GPM: interpretation of data, critical review of manuscript. BL: acquired all data, data analysis, interpretation of data, critical review of manuscript. TRM: acquired all data, data analysis, interpretation of data, critical review of manuscript. BNB: project idea, critical review of manuscript, supervision of project.

  • Funding This work was funded by the UCSF REAC-RAP programme and the Alafi Foundation.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement Raw data is available upon request of corresponding author ".

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