Inj Prev 9:307-311 doi:10.1136/ip.9.4.307
  • Original Article

Unintentional and undetermined firearm related deaths: a preventable death analysis for three safety devices

  1. J S Vernick1,
  2. M O’Brien2,
  3. L M Hepburn2,
  4. S B Johnson1,
  5. D W Webster1,
  6. S W Hargarten3
  1. 1Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Gun Policy and Research, Baltimore, Maryland
  2. 2Harvard School of Public Health, Injury Control Research Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  3. 3Medical College of Wisconsin, Firearm Injury Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  1. Correspondence to:
 Jon S Vernick
 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Gun Policy and Research, 624 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA;


    Objective: To determine the proportion of unintentional and undetermined firearm related deaths preventable by three safety devices: personalization devices, loaded chamber indicators (LCIs), and magazine safeties. A personalized gun will operate only for an authorized user, a LCI indicates when the gun contains ammunition, and a magazine safety prevents the gun from firing when the ammunition magazine is removed.

    Design: Information about all unintentional and undetermined firearm deaths from 1991–98 was obtained from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for Maryland, and from the Wisconsin Firearm Injury Reporting System for Milwaukee. Data regarding the victim, shooter, weapon, and circumstances were abstracted. Coding rules to classify each death as preventable, possibly preventable, or not preventable by each of the three safety devices were also applied.

    Results: There were a total of 117 firearm related deaths in our sample, 95 (81%) involving handguns. Forty three deaths (37%) were classified as preventable by a personalized gun, 23 (20%) by a LCI, and five (4%) by a magazine safety. Overall, 52 deaths (44%) were preventable by at least one safety device. Deaths involving children 0–17 (relative risk (RR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1 to 5.1) and handguns (RR 8.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 53.5) were more likely to be preventable. Projecting the findings to the entire United States, an estimated 442 deaths might have been prevented in 2000 had all guns been equipped with these safety devices.

    Conclusion: Incorporating safety devices into firearms is an important injury intervention, with the potential to save hundreds of lives each year.

    Free sample
    This recent issue is free to all users to allow everyone the opportunity to see the full scope and typical content of Injury Prevention.
    View free sample issue >>

    Don't forget to sign up for content alerts so you keep up to date with all the articles as they are published.

    Navigate This Article