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Please see: Inj Prev 2014;20:40

Inj Prev 18:210-215 doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2011-040173
  • Original article

The impact of pedestrian countdown signals on pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions: a quasi-experimental study

Open Access
  1. Andrew Howard1,6,7,8
  1. 1Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
  2. 2Division of Epidemiology, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  3. 3Department of Geography, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  4. 4Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  5. 5Department of Paediatrics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  6. 6Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
  7. 7Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  8. 8Department of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Dr Andrew Howard, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Room S-107, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada; andrew.howard{at}sickkids.ca
  1. Contributors AC: Data assembly, model specification, data analysis, writing and editing of the manuscript, final approval of the version to be published. RB: Data assembly, contributed GIS expertise, model specification and interpretation, writing and editing of the manuscript, final approval of the version to be published. LR: Study design, data assembly, model specification, data analysis, writing and editing of the manuscript, final approval of the version to be published. CM: Interpretation of models, writing and editing of the manuscript, final approval of the version to be published. AH: Study design, data assembly, model specification and interpretation, data analysis, writing and editing of the manuscript, final approval of the version to be published.

  • Accepted 7 November 2011
  • Published Online First 10 December 2011

Abstract

Objective To determine whether pedestrian countdown signals (PCS) reduce pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions in the city of Toronto, Canada.

Methods A quasi-experimental study design was used to evaluate the effect of PCS on the number of pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions in the city of Toronto, from January 2000 to December 2009. Each intersection acted as its own control. We compared the number of pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions per intersection-month before and after the intervention. Stratified models were used to evaluate effect modification by pedestrian age, injury severity and location (urban vs inner suburbs). Poisson regression analysis with repeated measures (generalised estimating equations) was used to estimate the RR and 95% CI.

Results The analysis included 9262 pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions at 1965 intersections. The RR of collisions after PCS installation was 1.014 (95% CI 0.958 to 1.073), indicating no statistically significant effect of PCS on collisions. There was no evidence to suggest effect modification between PCS and collisions by age, injury severity or location.

Conclusion The installation of PCS at 1965 signalised intersections in Toronto did not reduce the number of pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions at these intersections.

Footnotes

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval Ethics approval for the study was provided by the ethics review board of the Hospital for Sick Children.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/ and http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/legalcode.

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