Attitudes regarding ski helmet use among helmet wearers and non-wearers
- Gerhard Ruedl1,
- Martin Kopp1,
- Gerhard Rumpold2,
- Bernhard Holzner3,
- Larissa Ledochowski1,
- Martin Burtscher1
- 1Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
- 2Department of Medical Psychology, Innsbruck Medical University, Austria
- 3Department of Biological Psychiatry, Innsbruck Medical University, Austria
- Correspondence to Dr Gerhard Ruedl, Department of Sport Science of the University of Innsbruck, Fürstenweg 185, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria;
- Accepted 10 August 2011
- Published Online First 22 September 2011
Objective The aim of this study was to compare attitudes regarding ski helmet use in helmet wearers and non-wearers.
Methods In total, 924 persons ≥18 years (52% men and 48% women) participating in sport programmes at the University Sports Institute Innsbruck/Austria were interviewed about their attitudes regarding ski helmets and scored 14 statements on a five-level Likert Scale. A factor analysis was employed to determine clusters of underlying attitudes that have subsequently been used as predictors of helmet non-use in a conditional logistic regression analysis.
Results In total, 65% of participants declared to use a helmet during their preferred winter sport activity while more than 80% of helmet wearers and non-wearers totally agreed that helmets protect from head injuries. According to the factor analysis, attitudes about ski helmets clustered around four major dimensions—subjective disadvantages, safety awareness, comfort/style and risk compensation. Adjusted ORs of regression analysis showed that helmet non-use increased with age and decreased with increasing skill level (beginner: OR 5.4, 95% CI 2.6 to 11.1; intermediate: OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.4 to 7.9; advanced: OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.7 to 5.4). In addition, helmet non-use was associated with subjective disadvantages (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8 to 2.9). However, a negative association between helmet non-use and safety awareness (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.4) was found.
Conclusion Helmet use was associated with higher safety awareness, while most arguments against helmet use seem to belong to subjective perception and to represent anticipatory negative cognitions, poorly supported by evidence. Therefore, evidence-based information about wearing a ski helmet should be implemented in preventive helmet campaigns focusing on non-wearers. In addition, health communication programmes should be instituted to get non-helmeted skiers and snowboarders to try out helmets to eliminate their potential prejudices.
- Ski helmet
- alpine skiing
- head injury
- risk factor research
- sports/leisure facility
- risk perception
Competing interests None.
Ethich approval This study was conducted with the approval of the Institutional Review Board Sport Science, University of Innsbruck.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.