The number and severity of road accident are increasing, especially motorcycle mode. 50% among the road accident was traumatic brain injury (TBI) with 25% rate of death. From 2007, the Government force motorcyclist to wear helmet, then the number of accident reduced 40%, TBI reduced 30% and the rate of death reduced to 15% for the short time. However, from the end of 2008, even accident number decreasing, number of TBI and death is jumping. This paper aims to analyse the reason of TBI and death happening increased, by doing specific surveys. The first survey was taken to 1038 motorcyclists to identify the use of helmet and reason of using standard/non-standard helmet including five factors: price, type, colour and form, brand, quality. The second survey was taken at the helmet market and the third survey toward 9 traffic safety agencies. It was reveal that most of people use non-standard helmet even those with certification stamp. According to the fourth survey that was taken to five hospitals, number of road accident into the hospital occupied of a whole. Out of road accident cases, a haft were physical-broken injuries and a haft were traumatic brain injuries. Data show in many cases, motorcycle drivers wear non-standard helmet (of a whole) or in a wrong way (left), then the accident would be heavy and the victim would suffer TBI. Therefore enforcement and education is very important to change people's attitude and awareness to improve road safety in Vietnam.
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